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Table 1 Observational and double-blind, placebo-controlled studies showing the impact of Se on fetus, preeclampsia and thyroid autoimmunity during pregnancy

From: Selenium and at-risk pregnancy: challenges and controversies

Author No of participants Study design Outcome Ref.
Se Impact on fetus
 Polanska K 2017 539 mother-child pairs Observational 1st trimester Se status was associated with child language and motor skills (β = 0.18, p = 0.03 and β = 0.25, p = 0.005, respectively) at one year of age [24]
 Mocenic I 2019 205 mother-child pairs Observational Maternal blood Se was negatively associated with cerebellum length (r = − 0.372; p = 0.008); cord blood was positively associated with cerebellum width (r = 0.613; p = 0.007) [30]
 Amoros R 2018 650 mother-child pairs Observational inverted U-shaped relationships between Se concentrations and mental and psychomotor development scores (β (95% CI) = − 0.13 (− 0.29, 0.03) and β (95% CI) = − 0.08 (− 0.24, 0.07), respectively) [28]
Se and preeclampsia
 Rayman MP 2014 230 pregnant women Double-blind placebo-controlled. Se 60 μg/day placebo. 12–14 week until delivery. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1) decreased as marker of risk of preeclampsia [8]
Se and autoimmunity in pregnancy
 Mao JJ 2016 230 pregnant women Double-blind placebo-controlled.
Se 200 μg/day or placebo until delivery.
In ThyAB+ TSH decreased (p = 0.050) vs. placebo. TSH in ThyAB- increased and FT4 decreased significantly during gestation (p < 0.001). [67]
 Negro R 2007 2143 euthyroid pregnant women Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled Post-partum and permanent hypothyroidism were lower in women treated with SeMet 200 μg/day (28.6 vs. 48.6%, p < 0.01; and 11.7 vs. 20.3%, p < 0.01, respectively) [64]
 Mantovani G 2019 45 pregnant women (SERENA study) multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Beneficial effect of SeMet treatment on ThyAB titer as compared to placebo (TgAb 151.03 ± 182.9, p < 0.01; TPOAb 441.28 ± 512.18, p < 0.01) and PP TgAb 19.86 (11.59–52.60), p < 0.01; TPOAb 255.00 (79.00–292.00), p < 0.01 [65]