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Table 4 Summary of 62 case reports identified through our search strategy that reported thyroid carcinomas within hot nodules. (AFTN autonomously functioning thyroid nodules, TMNG toxic multinodular goiter, FTC follicular thyroid carcinoma, FVPTC follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, MTC medullary thyroid carcinoma, PTC papillary thyroid carcinoma)

From: Malignancy risk of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules compared with non-toxic nodules: systematic review and a meta-analysis

Authors Year Study Title Journal Title Sample size Age Single or multiple toxic nodules Type of thyroid carcinoma
Abs, R., et al. 1991 Hyperfunctioning metastatic follicular thyroid-carcinoma in Pendreds syndrome Cancer 1 66 TMNG FTC (metastatic)
Alaoui, N. I. and N. Ben Rais 2011 Association of hyperthyroidism and well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (medullary excluded). A propos of seven cases. Medecine Nucleaire-Imagerie Fonctionnelle Et Metabolique 7 41.4 4 Graves’ disease, 2 single AFTN, 1 TMNG 5 PTC, 2 FTC
Appetecchia, M. and M. Ducci [41] 1998 Hyperfunctioning differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 1   AFTN PTC
Ardito, G., et al. [42] 1997 Papillary thyroid carcinoma mimicking an autonomous functioning nodule. European Journal of Surgical Oncology 1   AFTN PTC
Bajja, M. Y., et al. [43] 2017 Mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid: A case report and review of the literature. Annales D Endocrinologie 1 74 AFTN Mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid
Barrande, G., et al. 1997 Two thyroid carcinomas mimicking toxic adenomas. Presse Medicale 2 35 and 55 AFTN  
Becker, F. O., et al. 1963 The occurrence of carcinoma in “hot” thyroid nodules. Report of two cases. Annals of Internal Medicine 2    
Bircan, R., et al. 2007 The second follicular thyroid carcinoma presenting as a hot thyroid nodule with a somatic 1486F TSH-Receptor (TSHR) gene mutation. Hormone Research 1    FTC
Bitterman, A., et al. [44] 2006 Thyroid carcinoma presenting as a hot nodule. Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 1 66, 57, 59 AFTN & TMNG PTC & 2 FTC
Bommireddipalli, S., et al. [45] 2010 Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a toxic nodule by I-123 scintigraphy. Clinical Nuclear Medicine 1 63 AFTN FVPTC
Bourasseau, I., et al. 2000 No evidence of thyrotropin receptor and G(s alpha) gene mutation in high iodine uptake thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 4 Mean age 41.1 3 AFTN, 1 TMNG 2 PTC and 2 FTC
Calimon, M. A. P. and S. W. Lim-Uy [46] 2014 Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in an Autonomous Hyperfunctioning Thyroid Nodule. Endocrine Reviews 1   AFTN PTC
Camacho, P., et al. [47] 2000 A Phe 486 thyrotropin receptor mutation in an autonomously functioning follicular carcinoma that was causing hyperthyroidism. Thyroid 1 49 AFTN FTC
Campenni, A., et al. [32] 2011 Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a toxic nodule in an adolescent girl European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 1 15 AFTN PTC
Castelli, V., et al. 1994 Occurrence of papillary carcinoma in a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule: report of a case and diagnostic considerations Thyroidology 1    PTC
Cirillo, R. L., Jr., et al. [48] 1998 Metastatic pure papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a toxic hot nodule. Clinical Nuclear Medicine 1   AFTN PTC (metastatic)
Clement, K., et al. [49] 1991 Thyroid cancer revealed by an extinctive hot nodule Presse Medicale 1 62   
Damle, N., et al. [33] 2011 Papillary carcinoma masquerading as clinically toxic adenoma in very young children. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism 2 6 months and 5y AFTN PTC
De Rosa, G., et al. [50] 1990 Thyroid carcinoma mimicking a toxic adenoma. European Journal of Nuclear Medicine    AFTN  
Ducci, M., et al. [34] 1996 Differentiated carcinoma in autonomously functioning thyroid nodule: case report. Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica: organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale 1 13 AFTN PTC
Einert, A., et al. [51] 1995 A combination of unifocal thyroid autonomy and follicular carcinoma - A case report Radiologe 1 53 AFTN FTC
Emmrich, P., et al. [52] 2001 Unifocal autonomous thyroid nodule and carcinoma. Zentralblatt Fur Chirurgie 2   AFTN FTC and PTC
Foppiani, L., et al. [53] 2005 Heterogeneous malignancy in toxic thyroid nodules Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 3 68, 38, & 62 2 AFTN, 1 TMNG 3 FTC
Fuhrer, D., et al. [54] 2003 Two somatic TSH receptor mutations in a patient with toxic metastasising follicular thyroid carcinoma and non-functional lung metastases. Endocrine-Related Cancer 1 59 TMNG FTC
Fujimoto, Y., et al. 1972 Occurrence of papillary carcinoma in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule. Report of a case. Endocrinologia Japonica 1    
Fukata, S., et al. [55] 1987 Thyroid carcinoma and hot nodule European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 1 70 AFTN PTC
Gardner, D. and S. C. Ho 2014 A rare cause of hyperthyroidism: functioning thyroid metastases BMJ Case Reports 1 66 TMNG FVPTC
Gozu, H. et al. [67] 2004 Does a Leu 512 Arg thyrotropin receptor mutation cause an autonomously functioning papillary carcinoma? Thyroid 1 ? TMNG PTC
Kim, T. S., et al. 2007 A rare case of hyperfunctioning papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland Acta Oto-Laryngologica 1 32 AFTN FVPTC
Kuan, Y. C. and F. H. Tan 2014 Thyroid papillary carcinoma in a ‘hot’ thyroid nodule. Qjm 1 60 AFTN FVPTC
Lado-Abeal J. et al [68] 2010 Identification of a paired box gene 8-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PAX8-PPAR gamma) rearrangement mosaicism in a patient with an autonomous functioning follicular thyroid carcinoma bearing an activating mutation in the TSH receptor Endocrine-Related Cancer 1 55 TMNG FTC
Lima, M. J., et al. 2018 Autonomously hyperfunctioning cystic nodule harbouring thyroid carcinoma - Case report and literature review.” International Journal of Surgery Case Reports 1 49 AFTN FVPTC
Majima, T., et al. [56] 2005 Papillary thyroid carcinoma without metastases manifesting as an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule. Endocrine Journal 1 59 AFTN PTC
Marcelino, M., et al. [28] 2014 Anaplastic carcinoma and toxic multinodular goiter: an unusual presentation European Thyroid Journal 1 70 TMNG Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma
Mircescu, H., et al. [35] 2000 Hyperfunctioning malignant thyroid nodule in an 11-year-old girl: pathologic and molecular studies. Journal of Pediatrics 1 11 AFTN PTC
Mirfakhraee, S., et al. [8] 2013 A solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma: review of the literature Thyroid research 1 29 AFTN FTC
Nagai, G. R., et al. 1987 Scintigraphic hot nodules and thyroid carcinoma Clinical Nuclear Medicine 3    2 FTC and 1 PTC
Nemec, J., et al. [57] 1980 Metastatic thyroid cancer with severe hyperthyroidism mimicking independent hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma, showing transition to water-clear-tumour. Endokrinologie 1   AFTN FTC (metastatic)
Niepomniszcze, H., et al. [58] 2006 Follicular carcinoma presenting as autonomous functioning thyroid nodule and containing an activating mutation of the TSH receptor (T620I) and a mutation of the Ki-RAS (G12C) genes. Thyroid 1 64 AFTN FTC
Nishida, A. T., et al. [59] 2008 Multifocal hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma without metastases. Auris, Nasus, Larynx 1 62 TMNG PTC
Polyzos, S. A. and D. G. Goulis [30] 2011 Coincidental thyroid papillary microcarcinoma in a patient treated for a toxic adenoma of the thyroid. Archives of Iranian Medicine 1   AFTN PTC (microcarcinoma)
Rees, D. O., et al. [36] 2015 Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: an unusual cause of thyrotoxicosis. BMJ Case Reports 1 16 AFTN FVPTC
Rivas, I., et al. [29] 1995 Medullary thyroid carcinoma mimicking an autonomous functioning nodule Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 1 42 AFTN MTC
Rubenfeld, S. and T. M. Wheeler 1988 Thyroid cancer presenting as a hot thyroid nodule: report of a case and review of the literature Thyroidology 1   AFTN  
Ruggeri, R. M., et al. [37] 2013 Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as toxic nodule in an adolescent: coexistent polymorphism of the TSHR and Gsalpha genes. Thyroid 1 15 AFTN FVPTC
Russo, D. et al. [70] 1997 Detection of an activating mutation of the thyrotropin receptor in a case of an autonomously hyperfunctioning thyroid insular carcinoma JCEM 1 60 AFTN Insular carcinoma
Russo, D. et al. [69] 1999 A Val 677 activating mutation of the thyrotropin receptor in a Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma associated with thyrotoxicosis Thyroid 1 42 AFTN Hurthle cell carcinoma
Sablayrolles, B., et al. 1983 Thyroid carcinoma presenting as a hot nodule in a child Archives Francaises De Pediatrie 1    
Salih, A. M., et al. 2016 Hyperfunctioning papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report with literature review. nternational Journal of Surgery Case Reports 1 40 TMNG PTC
Sandler, M. P., et al. [60] 1988 Thyroid carcinoma masquerading as a solitary benign hyperfunctioning nodule Clinical Nuclear Medicine 1   AFTN PTC
Sato, Y., et al. 1998 Hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma concomitant with papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid adenoma and primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine Journal 1 67 TMNG PTC
Schmidt, S., et al. 2016 Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules (toxic adenoma)-underestimated risk of malignancy? Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery 1 72 TMNG PTC
Schneider, P. W., et al. [61] 2000 A clear cell variant of follicular carcinoma presenting as an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule. Thyroid 1   AFTN FTC
Sevinc, B., et al. 2018 Papillary thyroid carcinoma after radioactive iodine treatment for toxic thyroid nodule: Case report. Marmara Medical Journal 1 55 AFTN PTC
Siddiqui, A. R. and S. Karanauskas [38] 1995 Hurthle cell-carcinoma in an autonomous thyroid nodule in an adolescent Pediatric Radiology 1 16 AFTN Hurthle cell carcinoma
Simsek, E., et al. 2014 Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in an Autonomous Hyperfunctioning Thyroid Nodule in an Adolescent Endocrine Reviews 1   AFTN PTC (metastatic)
Sobel, R. J., et al. 1985 Papillary carcinoma and the solitary autonomously functioning nodule of the thyroid. Israel Journal of Medical Sciences 3   AFTN PTC
Stahl, A., et al. [62] 2002 Differentiated thyroid carcinoma in a scintigraphically hot nodule: diagnosis and interdisciplinary therapeutical approach. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift 1 57 AFTN Metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma
Tangari, A., et al. [31] 2011 Hot nodule harboring a papillary microcarcinoma in a girl from an iodine sufficient area. Hormone Research in Paediatrics 1 3 AFTN PTC (microcarcinoma)
Tfayli, H. M., et al. [39] 2010 Papillary thyroid carcinoma in an autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule: case report and review of the literature Thyroid 1 11 AFTN PTC
Uludag, M., et al. 2008 Autonomously functioning thyroid nodule treated with radioactive iodine and later diagnosed as papillary thyroid cancer. Hormones 1 36 AFTN PTC (columnar type)
Wong, C. P., et al. [63] 2003 Thyrotoxicosis: a rare presenting symptom of Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid. Clinical Nuclear Medicine 1   AFTN Hurthle cell carcinoma