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Table 1 characteristics and summary of findings in the included studies

From: Is Hashimoto thyroiditis associated with increasing risk of thyroid malignancies? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Study design Setting Study method Sample size Mean age ± SD Female: Male Thyroid cancer type Rate of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (in percent)
Thyroid cancer Control group
Alcântara-Jones 2015 [12] Retrospective Brazil Thyroidectomy 49 48.5 30:3 Papillary 27.27
(9/33)
31.25
(5/16)
Zeng 2016 [13] Retrospective China Thyroidectomy 619 45.9 484:135 Papillary 35.86 (222/619)  
Campos 2012 [1] Retrospective Brazil Thyroidectomy 315 44.9 34:7 Papillary 26.83 (11/41) 1.12
(3/268)
Ye 2013 [14] Retrospective China Thyroidectomy 2052 828:176 Papillary 18.63 (187/1004) 6.42 (66/1028)
Cipolla 2005 [15] Retrospective Italy Thyroidectomy 178 68:21 Papillary 26.76
(19/71)
 
Kim 2011 [16] Retrospective Korea Thyroidectomy 1329 47.5 821:207 Papillary 29.86
(307/1028)
9.64 (24/249)
       32:20 Follicular 9.62
(5/52)
 
Ahn 2011 [17] Retrospective Korea Thyroidectomy 303 42.8 225:44 Papillary 21.56
(58/269)
 
Huang 2011 [18] Retrospective China Thyroidectomy 1997 39.9 1450:338 Papillary 4.75
(85/1788)
 
       153:56 Follicular 3.83
(8/209)
 
Lun 2013 [19] Retrospective China Thyroidectomy 2478 41.3 538:138 Papillary 18.79
(127/676)
7.16
(129/1802)
Moshynska 2008 [20] Retrospective Canada Thyroidectomy 20 Lymphoma 60
(12/20)
 
Singh 1999 [21] Retrospective United States Thyroidectomy 453 41 267:121 Papillary 14.69
(57/388)
 
       Follicular 2.08
(1/48)
 
       Lymphoma 5.88
(1/17)
 
Zhang 2014 [22] Retrospective China Thyroidectomy 8524 43.1 Papillary 28.46
(592/2080)
 
Nemetz 2011 [23] Retrospective Brazil Thyroidectomy 52 51.3 48:4 Papillary 32.69
(17/52)
 
Jeong 2012 [24] Retrospective Korea Thyroidectomy 1357 44.5 1176:181 Papillary 26.46
(359/1357)
 
Kashima 1998 [25] Retrospective Japan Thyroidectomy 1533 42.6 1402:131 Papillary 18.33
(281/1533)
 
Kebebew 2001 [26] Retrospective United States Thyroidectomy 136 45.5 95:41 Papillary 30.15
(41/136)
 
Yoon 2012 [27] Retrospective Korea Thyroidectomy 195 45.9 166:29 Papillary 28.72
(56/195)
 
Graceffa 2019 [28] Retrospective Italy Thyroidectomy 305 50.6 258:47 Papillary 28.6
(36/126)
7.7
(11/142)
Selek 2016 [29] Retrospective Turkey Thyroidectomy 870 47 ± 12   Papillary 30
(172/ 577)
31
(90/ 293)
Topaloglu 2016 [30] Retrospective Turkey Thyroidectomy 427 Malignant:
49.10 ± 12.23
Benign:
47.78 ± 12.39
341:86 Papillary 38.4
(73/190)
29.5
(70/237)
Zeng 2018 [31] Retrospective China Thyroidectomy 258 17.31 ± 3.21 212:46 Papillary 17.8
(23/129)
1.6
(2/129)
Osorio 2019 [7] Retrospective Colombia Thyroidectomy 1136 47.5 ± 14.3 1047: 89 Papillary 24
(44/183)
13.11
(125/953)
Youssef Mohamed 2020 [32] Retrospective Egypt Thyroidectomy 80 22: 58 Papillary 20
16/80
 
JNawarathna 2018 [33] Retrospective Sri Lanka Thyroidectomy 684 48 ± 12.5 611: 73 Papillary OR: 0.867 (0.25-2.99)
        Follicular OR: 1.02 (0.22-4.58)
  Rate of thyroid cancer (in percent)
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis Control group
Repplinger 2008 [34] Retrospective United States Thyroidectomy 1198   215:77 Papillary 29.03
(63/217)
23.34
(229/981)
Paparodis 2014 [35] Retrospective United States Thyroidectomy 2718    Papillary 42.68
(242/567)
26.27
(565/2151)
        Follicular 1.76
(10/567)
2.14
(46/2151)
Anil 2010 [36] Prospective Turkey FNA 715    Papillary 1.22
(2/164)
3.45
(19/551)
Konturek 2013 [37] Retrospective Poland Thyroidectomy 7545 53.5   Papillary 23.45
(106/452)
7.47
(530/7093)
Mukasa 2011 [38] Retrospective Japan FNA 2036    Papillary 1.77
(36/2036)
 
        Lymphoma 0.10
(2/2036)
 
Matesa-Anic 2009 [39] Retrospective Croatia FNA 10,508 50 236:33 Papillary 1.95
(42/2156)
2.72
(227/8352)
Dailey 1955 [5] Prospective United States Thyroidectomy 2336 37.5   Papillary 10.43
(29/278)
 
Larson 2007 [40] Retrospective United States Thyroidectomy 812 41 142:37 Papillary 34.7
(34/98)
20.4
(145/710)
       16:5 Follicular 9.2
(9/98)
1.69
(12/710)
       3:0 Anaplastic 1.02
(1/98)
0.28
(2/710)
Zayed 2015 [41] Retrospective Jordan Thyroidectomy 180 51.3 9:6 Medullary 3.85
(3/78)
1.53
(12/785)
       102:35 Papillary 10.26
(8/78)
16.43
(129/785)
       18:9 Follicular 0
(0/78)
3.44
(27/785)
Gul 2010 [42] Retrospective Turkey Thyroidectomy 613 43   Papillary 43.48 (40/92) 25.14 (131/521)
        Follicular 1.09
(1/92)
1.92
(10/521)
        Medullary 0
(0/92)
0.96
(5/521)
        Lymphoma 1.09
(1/92)
0
(0/521)
Mazokopakis 2010 [43] Retrospective Greece Thyroidectomy 140 49.3 25:7 Papillary 28.57
(12/42)
20.41
(20/98)
Sclafani 1993 [44] Retrospective United States Thyroidectomy 48 51.7   Papillary 12.5
(6/48)
 
Peterson 1957 [45] Retrospective United States Thyroidectomy 757    Papillary 2.60
(2/77)
2.06
(14/680)
Zhang 2014 [46] Retrospective China Thyroidectomy 647 43.3   Papillary 37.96
(41/108)
17.25
(93/539)
        Follicular 0
(0/108)
0.37
(2/539)
        Medullary 1.85
(2/108)
0.37
(2/539)
        Anaplastic 0
(0/108)
0.56
(3/539)
        Lymphoma 0.93
(1/108)
0
(0/539)
Holm 1985 [47] Prospective Sweden FNA 1656    Papillary 0.12
(1/829)
0.12
(1/829)
        Follicular 0.12
(1/829)
0.12
(1/829)
        Lymphoma 0.48
(4/829)
0
(0/829)
Moris 2019 [48] prospective United States Thyroidectomy 9851 52.2 ± 15 8263:
1588
Undefined 22.8
(606/2651)
15.4
(1105/7200)
    FNA     Undefined 7.3
(284/3895)
4.7
(473/10168)
Jackson 2020 [49] retrospective United States Thyroidectomy 359    Incidental thyroid cancer 15
(8/52)
10
(31/307)
        Thyroid cancer 37 (19/52) 37 (114/307)
Keskin 2016 [50] prospective Turkey FNA and Thyroidectomy 300 12.1 ± 3.1 238: 62 Papillary 0.66
(2/300)
 
Liu2017 [51] retrospective China Thyroidectomy 927 46 ± 0 706:
221
Papillary   
Radetti 2019 [52] prospective Italy FNA 904 10.6 ± 3.2 709:
195
Papillary 1.1
(10/904)
 
Won2018 [53] retrospective Korea FNA 89 11.1 ±
3.7
76: 13 Papillary 7.9
(7/89)
 
Boi 2017 [54] retrospective Italy FNA 645     28.9
(44/152)
7.4
(12/161)
    Thyroidectomy     Papillary 64.3
(45/70)
35.1
(13/37)
    Thyroidectomy     Follicular 4.3
(3/70)
5.4
(2/37)
    Thyroidectomy     Medullary 2.8 (2/70) 2.7
(1/37)
Gabalec 2016 [55] retrospective Czech republic Thyroidectomy 4947    Undefined 29.5
(26/88)
15.2
(231/1515)
    FNA      14.2
(85/592)
15.2
(662/4348)
Büyükaşi 2011 [56] retrospective Turkey Thyroidectomy 917 adult 743:174 All Cancer Types 19.4
(15/77)
9.8
(82/840)
        Papillary 60.0
(9/15)
63.41
(52/82)
        Follicular 6.6
(1/15)
13.41
(11/82)
        Medullary 20.0
(3/15)
4.87
(4/82)
Chen 2013 [57] prospective Taiwan   7605 adult 6845:755   1.58 0.14
Cipolla 2005 [15] Retrospective Italy Thyroidectomy 178 68:21 Papillary 27.6
(13/47)
 
Zhang 2014 [22] Retrospective China Thyroidectomy 8524 43.1 Papillary 14.24
(247/839)
70
(592/839)
Graceffa 2019 [28] Retrospective Italy Thyroidectomy 305 50.6 258:47 Papillary 28.83
(47/163)
 
        Follicular 1.84
(3/163)
 
        Medullary 0.61
(1/163)
 
Uhliarova 2017 [58] prospective Slovakia Thyroidectomy 2117 11.1 ± 3.7 1738: 379 All cancer types 83.64%)
(266/318)