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  1. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lies in close proximity to the free radical-producing electron transport chain, thus, it is highly prone to oxidative damage. Oxyphilic type of follicular thyroid carcinoma consis...

    Authors: Małgorzata Karbownik-Lewińska, Jan Stępniak and Andrzej Lewiński
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:24
  2. In 1997 a currently obligatory model of iodine prophylaxis, based on mandatory iodization of household salt with 30 mg KI/kg, was introduced. The aim of our study was to assess the iodine intake among school-a...

    Authors: Arkadiusz Zygmunt, Zbigniew Adamczewski, Katarzyna Wojciechowska-Durczyńska, Anna Cyniak-Magierska, Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka, Agnieszka Zygmunt, Małgorzata Karbownik-Lewińska and Andrzej Lewiński
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:23
  3. The risk of neoplastic transformation in patients with chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto’s thyroiditis – HT) is slightly increased. Genetic background of this observation is still unclear. PI3K isoforms are linke...

    Authors: Katarzyna Wojciechowska-Durczynska, Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka, Anna Cyniak-Magierska, Arkadiusz Zygmunt, Stanisław Sporny and Andrzej Lewinski
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:22
  4. Nowadays, the increasing number of oncologic patients with liver or pancreatic tumours are subjected to surgical treatment, as it can provide a long-term survival or sometimes cure. As a result, numerous new c...

    Authors: Katarzyna Wojciechowska-Durczynska, Arkadiusz Zygmunt, Adam Durczynski, Janusz Strzelczyk and Andrzej Lewinski
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:21
  5. The so called “big-big” prolactin (Prl), also known as macroprolactin is formed by Prl-immunoglobulin (Prl-IgG) complexes and may cause elevation of serum Prl concentrations measured by standard assays, potent...

    Authors: Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Danuta Gąsior-Perczak, Aldona Kowalska and Andrzej Lewiński
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:20
  6. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role as regulators of inflammatory events associated with thyroid pathology. The immunoregulatory function of DCs depends strongly on their subtype, as well as maturation and...

    Authors: Mariusz Stasiołek, Zbigniew Adamczewski, Bartosz Puła, Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka, Arkadiusz Zygmunt, Magdalena Borowiecka, Piotr Dzięgiel and Andrzej Lewiński
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:18
  7. The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological...

    Authors: Adam Gesing, Andrzej Lewiński and Małgorzata Karbownik-Lewińska
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:16
  8. Sclerostin, a product of a SOST gene, is a protein expressed by osteocytes that inhibits osteoblastic bone formation. Several hormones, including PTH and glucocorticosteroids, have been suggested to be possible r...

    Authors: Elżbieta Skowrońska-Jóźwiak, Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka, Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Zbigniew Adamczewski and Andrzej Lewiński
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:14
  9. Recent attention has been given to subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as an elevation of TSH (4.5-10 uIU/L) with T4 and T3 levels still within the normal range. Controversy exists about the proper lower limit...

    Authors: Kimberly N Walter, Elizabeth J Corwin, Jan Ulbrecht, Laurence M Demers, Jeanette M Bennett, Courtney A Whetzel and Laura Cousino Klein
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:13
  10. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), together with their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), remodel extracellular matrix under physiological and pathological conditions and are implicated in pathogenesis of cardiovascula...

    Authors: A Lewiński, A Brona, KC Lewandowski, E Skowrońska-Jóźwiak and A Milewicz
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:12
  11. A 59-year old female patient presented with apathy and 6 kg weight gain. Investigations revealed severe primary hypothyroidism (TSH>100 μIU/ml). L-thyroxine (L-T4) was started and titrated up to 75 μg, once daily...

    Authors: Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Katarzyna Dąbrowska and Andrzej Lewiński
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:11
  12. Considerable progress was made by the introduction of interferon to the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. This treatment, however, is associated with the risk of developing or exacerbating auto...

    Authors: Janina Krupińska, Waldemar Urbanowicz, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Grzegorz Kulig, Elżbieta Sowińska-Przepiera, Elżbieta Andrysiak-Mamos and Anhelli Syrenicz
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:10
  13. Thyroidectomy is a common surgical procedure, after which drains are placed routinely. This study aims to assess the benefits of placing postoperative drains, its complications and affects on postoperative sta...

    Authors: Zahid Ali Memon, Gulrayz Ahmed, Sarah Rafi Khan, Mahvesh Khalid and Naheed Sultan
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:9
  14. Altered somatotrophic signaling is among the most important potential mechanisms of extended longevity. Ames dwarf (df/df) mice are homozygous for mutation at the Prop-1 gene, leading to a lack of growth hormo...

    Authors: Adam Gesing, Andrzej Bartke, Michal M Masternak, Andrzej Lewiński and Małgorzata Karbownik-Lewińska
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:7
  15. Thyroid storm is an endocrinological emergency caused by an exacerbation of the hyperthyroid state and is characterized by multi organ dysfunction. Liver dysfunction or injury predominantly of a cholestatic ty...

    Authors: Davis Kibirige, Daniel Sekikubo Kiggundu, Richard Sanya and Edrisa Mutebi
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:6
  16. Anterior mediastinal masses are a rare but well documented finding in Graves disease. The vast majority of these lesions represents benign thymic hypertrophy and regress after treatment of the hyperthyroidism....

    Authors: Jonathan D Boyd and Ridas Juskevicius
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:5
  17. Ophthalmopathy is a common manifestation of Graves’ disease (GD) occurring in up to 50% of patients. Mild eye signs are also common in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Whilst a genetic predisposition to ...

    Authors: Melissa Ardley, Thomas McCorquodale, Hooshang Lahooti, Bernard Champion and Jack R Wall
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:4
  18. Thyroglobulin is a large protein present in all vertebrates. It is synthesized in the thyrocytes and exported to lumen of the thyroid follicle, where its tyrosine residues are iodinated . The iodinated thyrogl...

    Authors: Abdelaziz Belkadi, Caroline Jacques, Frédérique Savagner and Yves Malthièry
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:3
  19. Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for...

    Authors: Satoru Suzuki, Shin-ichi Nishio, Teiji Takeda and Mitsuhisa Komatsu
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:1
  20. We report two patients with anorexia nervosa and Graves' disease who received subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease and concomitantly experienced remission from anorexia nervosa. Both were young women (ag...

    Authors: Hitoshi Noguchi, Tsukasa Murakami, Shinya Uchino, Hiroto Yamashita and Shiro Noguchi
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:17
  21. In recent few years is underlined that altered balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of AITD.

    Authors: Artur Bossowski, Jerzy Harasymczuk, Anna Moniuszko, Anna Bossowska, Maciej Hilczer and Karol Ratomski
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:13
  22. Thyroid hormones are of crucial importance for the functioning of nearly every organ. Remarkably, disturbances of thyroid hormone synthesis and function are among the most common endocrine disorders affecting ...

    Authors: Klaudia Brix, Dagmar Führer and Heike Biebermann
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S9

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  23. Constitutively activating germline mutations in the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene result in non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism and can be transmitted as a dominant trait or occur sporadically. These mutations a...

    Authors: Heike Biebermann, Franziska Winkler, Daniela Handke, Annette Grüters, Heiko Krude and Gunnar Kleinau
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S8

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  24. Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for the development of the human brain, growth and cellular metabolism. Investigation of TH transporters became one of the emerging fields in thyroid research after the disc...

    Authors: Anita Kinne, Ralf Schülein and Gerd Krause
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S7

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  25. Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal development, growth and metabolism. Its effects were thought to be principally mediated through triiodothyronine (T3), acting as a ligand for the nuclear TH recepto...

    Authors: Lars C Moeller and Martina Broecker-Preuss
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S6

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  26. RNA-binding proteins may regulate every aspect of RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA trafficking, stability and translation of many genes. The dynamic association of these proteins with RNA defi...

    Authors: Bogusz Trojanowicz, Henning Dralle and Cuong Hoang-Vu
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S5

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  27. The monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and transports specificly iodothyronines. MCT8 mutations are the underlying cause of a syndrome of severe X-linke...

    Authors: Gunnar Kleinau, Ulrich Schweizer, Anita Kinne, Josef Köhrle, Annette Grüters, Heiko Krude and Heike Biebermann
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S4

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  28. Thyroid hormones play a critical role in brain development but also in the adult human brain by modulating metabolic activity. Hypothyroid states are associated with both functional and structural brain altera...

    Authors: Maximilian Pilhatsch, Michael Marxen, Christine Winter, Michael N Smolka and Michael Bauer
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S3

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  29. The cysteine peptidase cathepsin B is important in thyroid physiology by being involved in prohormone processing initiated in the follicle lumen and completed in endo-lysosomal compartments. However, cathepsin...

    Authors: Sofia Tedelind, Silvia Jordans, Henrike Resemann, Galia Blum, Matthew Bogyo, Dagmar Führer and Klaudia Brix
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S2

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  30. Thyroid cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the endocrine system with increasing incidence. The vast majority of thyroid carcinomas derive from thyroid hormone producing follicular cells. Carcinom...

    Authors: Juliane Braun and Stefan Hüttelmaier
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S1

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  31. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) comprises the commonest type of thyroid cancer and carries the highest rate of survival. However, when metastatic disease occurs, survival is significantly affected.

    Authors: Alexandra Chrisoulidou, Maria Boudina, Athanasios Tzemailas, Eleni Doumala, Pashalia K Iliadou, Frideriki Patakiouta and Kalliopi Pazaitou-Panayiotou
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:12
  32. Currently the cytological examination of fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies is the standard technique for the pre-operative differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. However, the results may be non-informa...

    Authors: Kristine Ducena, Arturs Ābols, Janis Vilmanis, Zenons Narbuts, Juris Tārs, Diana Andrējeva, Aija Linē and Valdis Pīrāgs
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:11
  33. Pendred syndrome (PDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine orga...

    Authors: Tomoyuki Iwata, Tadao Yoshida, Masaaki Teranishi, Yoshiharu Murata, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Yasuhiko Kanou, Andrew J Griffith and Tsutomu Nakashima
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:10
  34. To assess predictors of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) persistence/recurrence.

    Authors: Angela M Leung, Shalini Dave, Stephanie L Lee, Francis X Campion, Jeffrey R Garber and Elizabeth N Pearce
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:9
  35. Thyroid storm is a condition in which multiple organ dysfunction results from failure of the compensatory mechanisms of the body owing to excessive thyroid hormone activity induced by some factors in patients ...

    Authors: Erika Osada, Naoki Hiroi, Mariko Sue, Natsumi Masai, Ryo Iga, Rika Shigemitsu, Reiko Oka, Masahiko Miyagi, Kaoru Iso, Koji Kuboki and Gen Yoshino
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:8
  36. We present a patient with severe hypothyroidism complicated by paralytic ileus and acute kidney injury. A 65 year old male patient, diagnosed with hypothyroidism one year ago was transferred to our unit in a s...

    Authors: Chaturaka Rodrigo, Champika SSSK Gamakaranage, Dhanesha S Epa, Ariaranee Gnanathasan and Senaka Rajapakse
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:7
  37. The diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in short children seems unquestionable when both GH peak in stimulating tests (GHST) and IGF-I concentration are decreased. However, the discrepancies betw...

    Authors: Joanna Smyczyńska, Renata Stawerska, Andrzej Lewiński and Maciej Hilczer
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:6
  38. RET/PTC rearrangements are the most frequent molecular changes in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). So far, 15 main RET/PTC rearrangements have been described, among which RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 are the most com...

    Authors: Anna Cyniak-Magierska, Katarzyna Wojciechowska-Durczyńska, Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka, Arkadiusz Zygmunt and Andrzej Lewiński
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:5
  39. Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1), encoded by PIN1 gene with locus in chromosome 19p13, is an enzyme that catalytically induces conformational changes in proteins after phosphorylation on serine or threo...

    Authors: Andrzej Lewiński, Ewa Brzeziańska, Karolina Czarnecka, Joanna Latek, Włodzimierz Koptas and Anna Cyniak-Magierska
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:4
  40. COX-2 is an enzyme isoform that catalyses the formation of prostanoids from arachidonic acid. An increased COX-2 gene expression is believed to participate in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have shown that COX-2 ...

    Authors: Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka, Katarzyna Wojciechowska-Durczyńska, Anna Cyniak-Magierska, Zbigniew Adamczewski, Elżbieta Gałecka and Andrzej Lewiński
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:3

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