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Table 3 Mortality studies in hyperthyroidism: treatment groups vs disease-free/population controls

From: Should radioiodine now be first line treatment for Graves’ disease?

Author (ref)YearCountrySettingNo of patientsTotal/CV mortality RR (95%CI)Cancer mortality RR (95%CI)
Radioactive Iodine vs disease-free/population controls
 Goldman [12] (a)1988USAHospital1762Increased; SMR 1.3 (1.2, 1.4)No difference; SMR 0.9 (0.7, 1.1)
 Goldman [12] (b)1988USAHospital607Increased; SMR 1.2 (1.1, 1.4)No difference; SMR 1.0 (0.7, 1.3)
 Hall [13, 14]1992, 1993SwedenHospital10,552Increased; SMR 1.5 (1.4, 1.5)Increased; SMR 1.1 (1.0, 1.2)
 Franklyn [15, 16]1998, 1999UKRegister7209, 7417 (c)Increased; SMR 1.1 (1.1, 1.2)Decreased; SMR 0.9 (0.8, 0.9)
 Ron [17]1998USA/UKCTTFUS35,593NANo difference; SMR 1.0 (0.9, 1.0)
 Metso [18]2007FinlandHospital2793Increased; SMR 1.1 (1.0, 1.2)Increased; RR 1.3 (1.1, 1.6)
 Kitahara [11]2019USA/UKCTTFUS18,805NAIncreased; RR 1.1 (1.0, 1.1)
Antithyroid Drugs vs disease-free/population controls
 Ron [17]1998USA/UKCTTFUS35,593NAIncreased; SMR 1.3 (1.1, 1.6)
 Boelaert [7]2013UKHospital1036 (d)Increased; SMR 1.3 (1.1, 1.6) (d)No difference; SMR 1.0 (0.7, 1.6)
 Okosieme [8]2019UKRegistry3587Increased; RR 1.2 (1.0, 1.5)NA
Thyroidectomy vs disease-free/population controls
 Ryodi [19]2013FinlandRegistry4334No difference; RR 0.91, (0.8, 1.1) (e)NA
  1. RR relative risks, CI confidence interval, CV cardiovascular, CTTFUS Cooperative Thyrotoxicosis Therapy Follow-up study cohort, SMR Standardised Mortality Ratio, NA Not assessed
  2. (a), 80% of cohort treated with RAI, (b), Radioiodine treated cohort only, (c) Numbers are for the 1998 and 1999 cohorts respectively, (d) For reference [7] HR are based on person years accumulated during thionamide therapy in 1036 patients of which 272 received antithyroid drugs alone and 764 received radioiodine with or without antithyroid drugs, (e) RR for CV mortality