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  1. The endocrine system and particular endocrine organs, including the thyroid, undergo important functional changes during aging. The prevalence of thyroid disorders increases with age and numerous morphological...

    Authors: Adam Gesing, Andrzej Lewiński and Małgorzata Karbownik-Lewińska

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:16

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  2. Sclerostin, a product of a SOST gene, is a protein expressed by osteocytes that inhibits osteoblastic bone formation. Several hormones, including PTH and glucocorticosteroids, have been suggested to be possible r...

    Authors: Elżbieta Skowrońska-Jóźwiak, Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka, Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Zbigniew Adamczewski and Andrzej Lewiński

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:14

    Content type: Short report

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  3. Recent attention has been given to subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as an elevation of TSH (4.5-10 uIU/L) with T4 and T3 levels still within the normal range. Controversy exists about the proper lower limit...

    Authors: Kimberly N Walter, Elizabeth J Corwin, Jan Ulbrecht, Laurence M Demers, Jeanette M Bennett, Courtney A Whetzel and Laura Cousino Klein

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:13

    Content type: Research

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  4. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), together with their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs), remodel extracellular matrix under physiological and pathological conditions and are implicated in pathogenesis of cardiovascula...

    Authors: A Lewiński, A Brona, KC Lewandowski, E Skowrońska-Jóźwiak and A Milewicz

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:12

    Content type: Research

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  5. A 59-year old female patient presented with apathy and 6 kg weight gain. Investigations revealed severe primary hypothyroidism (TSH>100 μIU/ml). L-thyroxine (L-T4) was started and titrated up to 75 μg, once daily...

    Authors: Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Katarzyna Dąbrowska and Andrzej Lewiński

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:11

    Content type: Case report

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  6. Considerable progress was made by the introduction of interferon to the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. This treatment, however, is associated with the risk of developing or exacerbating auto...

    Authors: Janina Krupińska, Waldemar Urbanowicz, Mariusz Kaczmarczyk, Grzegorz Kulig, Elżbieta Sowińska-Przepiera, Elżbieta Andrysiak-Mamos and Anhelli Syrenicz

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:10

    Content type: Research

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  7. Thyroidectomy is a common surgical procedure, after which drains are placed routinely. This study aims to assess the benefits of placing postoperative drains, its complications and affects on postoperative sta...

    Authors: Zahid Ali Memon, Gulrayz Ahmed, Sarah Rafi Khan, Mahvesh Khalid and Naheed Sultan

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:9

    Content type: Research

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  8. Altered somatotrophic signaling is among the most important potential mechanisms of extended longevity. Ames dwarf (df/df) mice are homozygous for mutation at the Prop-1 gene, leading to a lack of growth hormo...

    Authors: Adam Gesing, Andrzej Bartke, Michal M Masternak, Andrzej Lewiński and Małgorzata Karbownik-Lewińska

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:7

    Content type: Research

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  9. Thyroid storm is an endocrinological emergency caused by an exacerbation of the hyperthyroid state and is characterized by multi organ dysfunction. Liver dysfunction or injury predominantly of a cholestatic ty...

    Authors: Davis Kibirige, Daniel Sekikubo Kiggundu, Richard Sanya and Edrisa Mutebi

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:6

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Anterior mediastinal masses are a rare but well documented finding in Graves disease. The vast majority of these lesions represents benign thymic hypertrophy and regress after treatment of the hyperthyroidism....

    Authors: Jonathan D Boyd and Ridas Juskevicius

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:5

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Ophthalmopathy is a common manifestation of Graves’ disease (GD) occurring in up to 50% of patients. Mild eye signs are also common in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Whilst a genetic predisposition to ...

    Authors: Melissa Ardley, Thomas McCorquodale, Hooshang Lahooti, Bernard Champion and Jack R Wall

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:4

    Content type: Research

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  12. Thyroglobulin is a large protein present in all vertebrates. It is synthesized in the thyrocytes and exported to lumen of the thyroid follicle, where its tyrosine residues are iodinated . The iodinated thyrogl...

    Authors: Abdelaziz Belkadi, Caroline Jacques, Frédérique Savagner and Yves Malthièry

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for...

    Authors: Satoru Suzuki, Shin-ichi Nishio, Teiji Takeda and Mitsuhisa Komatsu

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2012 5:1

    Content type: Research

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  14. We report two patients with anorexia nervosa and Graves' disease who received subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease and concomitantly experienced remission from anorexia nervosa. Both were young women (ag...

    Authors: Hitoshi Noguchi, Tsukasa Murakami, Shinya Uchino, Hiroto Yamashita and Shiro Noguchi

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:17

    Content type: Case report

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  15. In recent few years is underlined that altered balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of AITD.

    Authors: Artur Bossowski, Jerzy Harasymczuk, Anna Moniuszko, Anna Bossowska, Maciej Hilczer and Karol Ratomski

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:13

    Content type: Research

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  16. Thyroid hormones are of crucial importance for the functioning of nearly every organ. Remarkably, disturbances of thyroid hormone synthesis and function are among the most common endocrine disorders affecting ...

    Authors: Klaudia Brix, Dagmar Führer and Heike Biebermann

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S9

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  17. Constitutively activating germline mutations in the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene result in non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism and can be transmitted as a dominant trait or occur sporadically. These mutations a...

    Authors: Heike Biebermann, Franziska Winkler, Daniela Handke, Annette Grüters, Heiko Krude and Gunnar Kleinau

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  18. Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for the development of the human brain, growth and cellular metabolism. Investigation of TH transporters became one of the emerging fields in thyroid research after the disc...

    Authors: Anita Kinne, Ralf Schülein and Gerd Krause

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S7

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  19. Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal development, growth and metabolism. Its effects were thought to be principally mediated through triiodothyronine (T3), acting as a ligand for the nuclear TH recepto...

    Authors: Lars C Moeller and Martina Broecker-Preuss

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S6

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  20. RNA-binding proteins may regulate every aspect of RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA trafficking, stability and translation of many genes. The dynamic association of these proteins with RNA defi...

    Authors: Bogusz Trojanowicz, Henning Dralle and Cuong Hoang-Vu

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S5

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  21. The monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a member of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and transports specificly iodothyronines. MCT8 mutations are the underlying cause of a syndrome of severe X-linke...

    Authors: Gunnar Kleinau, Ulrich Schweizer, Anita Kinne, Josef Köhrle, Annette Grüters, Heiko Krude and Heike Biebermann

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  22. Thyroid hormones play a critical role in brain development but also in the adult human brain by modulating metabolic activity. Hypothyroid states are associated with both functional and structural brain altera...

    Authors: Maximilian Pilhatsch, Michael Marxen, Christine Winter, Michael N Smolka and Michael Bauer

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S3

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  23. The cysteine peptidase cathepsin B is important in thyroid physiology by being involved in prohormone processing initiated in the follicle lumen and completed in endo-lysosomal compartments. However, cathepsin...

    Authors: Sofia Tedelind, Silvia Jordans, Henrike Resemann, Galia Blum, Matthew Bogyo, Dagmar Führer and Klaudia Brix

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  24. Thyroid cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the endocrine system with increasing incidence. The vast majority of thyroid carcinomas derive from thyroid hormone producing follicular cells. Carcinom...

    Authors: Juliane Braun and Stefan Hüttelmaier

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4(Suppl 1):S1

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 4 Supplement 1

  25. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) comprises the commonest type of thyroid cancer and carries the highest rate of survival. However, when metastatic disease occurs, survival is significantly affected.

    Authors: Alexandra Chrisoulidou, Maria Boudina, Athanasios Tzemailas, Eleni Doumala, Pashalia K Iliadou, Frideriki Patakiouta and Kalliopi Pazaitou-Panayiotou

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. Currently the cytological examination of fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies is the standard technique for the pre-operative differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. However, the results may be non-informa...

    Authors: Kristine Ducena, Arturs Ābols, Janis Vilmanis, Zenons Narbuts, Juris Tārs, Diana Andrējeva, Aija Linē and Valdis Pīrāgs

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  27. Pendred syndrome (PDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing impairment and variable degree of goitrous enlargement of the thyroid gland with a partial defect in iodine orga...

    Authors: Tomoyuki Iwata, Tadao Yoshida, Masaaki Teranishi, Yoshiharu Murata, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Yasuhiko Kanou, Andrew J Griffith and Tsutomu Nakashima

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. To assess predictors of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) persistence/recurrence.

    Authors: Angela M Leung, Shalini Dave, Stephanie L Lee, Francis X Campion, Jeffrey R Garber and Elizabeth N Pearce

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Thyroid storm is a condition in which multiple organ dysfunction results from failure of the compensatory mechanisms of the body owing to excessive thyroid hormone activity induced by some factors in patients ...

    Authors: Erika Osada, Naoki Hiroi, Mariko Sue, Natsumi Masai, Ryo Iga, Rika Shigemitsu, Reiko Oka, Masahiko Miyagi, Kaoru Iso, Koji Kuboki and Gen Yoshino

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:8

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  30. We present a patient with severe hypothyroidism complicated by paralytic ileus and acute kidney injury. A 65 year old male patient, diagnosed with hypothyroidism one year ago was transferred to our unit in a s...

    Authors: Chaturaka Rodrigo, Champika SSSK Gamakaranage, Dhanesha S Epa, Ariaranee Gnanathasan and Senaka Rajapakse

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:7

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  31. The diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) in short children seems unquestionable when both GH peak in stimulating tests (GHST) and IGF-I concentration are decreased. However, the discrepancies betw...

    Authors: Joanna Smyczyńska, Renata Stawerska, Andrzej Lewiński and Maciej Hilczer

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. RET/PTC rearrangements are the most frequent molecular changes in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). So far, 15 main RET/PTC rearrangements have been described, among which RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 are the most com...

    Authors: Anna Cyniak-Magierska, Katarzyna Wojciechowska-Durczyńska, Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka, Arkadiusz Zygmunt and Andrzej Lewiński

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1), encoded by PIN1 gene with locus in chromosome 19p13, is an enzyme that catalytically induces conformational changes in proteins after phosphorylation on serine or threo...

    Authors: Andrzej Lewiński, Ewa Brzeziańska, Karolina Czarnecka, Joanna Latek, Włodzimierz Koptas and Anna Cyniak-Magierska

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. COX-2 is an enzyme isoform that catalyses the formation of prostanoids from arachidonic acid. An increased COX-2 gene expression is believed to participate in carcinogenesis. Recent studies have shown that COX-2 ...

    Authors: Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka, Katarzyna Wojciechowska-Durczyńska, Anna Cyniak-Magierska, Zbigniew Adamczewski, Elżbieta Gałecka and Andrzej Lewiński

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Autoimmune thyroid disease is a common complication of patients with chronic hepatitis C undergoing combination pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin treatment. A small proportion develops interferon-induced th...

    Authors: Huy A Tran, Tracey L Jones, Elizabeth A Ianna and Glenn EM Reeves

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. The purpose of this study was to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 3D gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasound, including thin slice volume rendering (TSVR), applied for evaluation of thyroid nodules.

    Authors: Rafal Zenon Slapa, Wieslaw Stanislaw Jakubowski, Jadwiga Slowinska-Srzednicka and Kazimierz Tomasz Szopinski

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2011 4:1

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Our Thyroid-Multidisciplinary Clinic is a large referral site for thyroid diseases. Thyroid biopsies are mainly performed for thyroid cancer screening. Yet, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is being too frequently d...

    Authors: Anca Staii, Sarah Mirocha, Kristina Todorova-Koteva, Simone Glinberg and Juan C Jaume

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2010 3:11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Calcitonin (Ct) and carcinoembrional antigen (CEA) are widely used as tumor markers for the post-operative follow-up of patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).

    Authors: Tomasz Gawlik, Andrea d'Amico, Sylwia Szpak-Ulczok, Aleksander Skoczylas, Elżbieta Gubała, Anna Chorąży, Kamil Gorczewski, Jan Włoch and Barbara Jarząb

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2010 3:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of 131I therapy between three groups of DTC patients who received 30, 60 or 100 mCi for thyroid remnant ablation after total thyroidectomy and were postoperat...

    Authors: Aleksandra Kukulska, Jolanta Krajewska, Marzena Gawkowska-Suwińska, Zbigniew Puch, Ewa Paliczka-Cieslik, Jozef Roskosz, Daria Handkiewicz-Junak, Michał Jarzab, Elzbieta Gubała and Barbara Jarzab

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2010 3:9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. In differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with primary tumor smaller than 1 cm, the routine central lymph node (LN) dissection is questioned, due to increased risk of post-surgery complications and lack of con...

    Authors: Agnieszka Czarniecka, Michal Jarzab, Jolanta Krajewska, Ewa Chmielik, Bogna Szcześniak-Klusek, Ewa Stobiecka, Robert Kokot, Aleksander Sacher, Stanisław Poltorak and Jan Wloch

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2010 3:8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Radioiodine (131I) therapy is widely accepted as an essential part of therapeutic regimens in many cases of differentiated thyroid cancer. Radiation-induced oxidative damage to macromolecules is a well known phen...

    Authors: Jacek Makarewicz, Andrzej Lewiński and Małgorzata Karbownik-Lewińska

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2010 3:7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Recent studies have shown that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is important regulator of many cellular events, including apoptosis, proliferation and motility. PI3K pathway alteratio...

    Authors: Katarzyna Wojciechowska-Durczyńska, Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka, Anna Cyniak-Magierska, Arkadiusz Zygmunt, Elżbieta Gałecka and Andrzej Lewiński

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2010 3:5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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