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  1. Pretibial myxedema also known as localized myxedema, thyroid dermopathy, or infiltrative dermopathy and rarely as localized mucinosis is an infrequent manifestation of Graves’ disease. It can appear before, du...

    Authors: Rediet Ambachew, Tizita Yosef, Aklilu M. Gebremariam, Lishan Demere, Theodros Aberra, Getahun Tarekegn and Ahmed Reja
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:4
  2. Hyperfunctioning or hot nodules are thought to be rarely malignant. As such, current guidelines recommend that hot nodules be excluded from further malignancy risk stratification. The objective of this systema...

    Authors: Lorraine W. Lau, Sana Ghaznavi, Alexandra D. Frolkis, Alexandra Stephenson, Helen Lee Robertson, Doreen M. Rabi and Ralf Paschke
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:3
  3. Thyroid nodules are common in clinical practice, and it is important to distinguish benign nodules, the vast majority, from malignant ones. Non-diagnostic (ND) samples have the potential to delay or mis-diagno...

    Authors: Devon Houdek, Sandra Cooke-Hubley, Lakshmi Puttagunta and Donald Morrish
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:2
  4. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is undoubtedly the thyroid cancer histotype with the poorest prognosis. The conventional treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy, and conventional chemotherapy. Surgery should ...

    Authors: Simone De Leo, Matteo Trevisan and Laura Fugazzola
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:17
  5. 131-iodine (131I) administration after surgery remains a standard practice in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). In 2014, the American Thyroid Association presented new guidelines for the staging and management...

    Authors: Laura Iconaru, Felicia Baleanu, Georgiana Taujan, Ruth Duttmann, Linda Spinato, Rafik Karmali, Pierre Bergmann and Anne-Sophie Hambye
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:15
  6. Total T4 (TT4) measurement is preferred to free T4 (FT4) especially in last part of pregnancy. Guidelines by American Thyroid Association, European Thyroid Association and Endocrine Society state that TT4 incr...

    Authors: Subhodip Pramanik, Pradip Mukhopadhyay and Sujoy Ghosh
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:14
  7. Our previous kinetic analyses of changes in the tumor volume (TV) of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas during active surveillance revealed that the tumors’ growth varied over time from rather rapid growth to s...

    Authors: Minoru Kihara, Akira Miyauchi, Hiroo Masuoka, Takuya Higashiyama, Yasuhiro Ito and Akihiro Miya
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:13
  8. Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) are preferred for the treatment of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves’ disease in pregnant women. The drugs have been a recognized treatment for decades, and a general risk of side effec...

    Authors: Stine Linding Andersen and Stig Andersen
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:11
  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as elevated TSH levels while T4 or FT4 levels are normal. Elevated TSH levels are linked with obesity in adults. In a recent meta-analysis in Iran, 6.1% of children below ...

    Authors: Ashkan Habib, Mohadeseh Molayemat and Asadollah Habib
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:9
  10. The prevalence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide. No previous data are available on the prevalence of thyroid cancer in Yemen. We performed this study to determine the prevalence of thyroid cancer amon...

    Authors: Butheinah A. Al-Sharafi, Jamila A. AlSanabani, Ibraheem M. Alboany and Amani M. Shamsher
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:8
  11. Worldwide, hypothyroidism affects 3.7% of the population, and is associated with impaired quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) on the quality of life ...

    Authors: Sohaila Rezaei, Parvin Abedi, Elham Maraghi, Najmeh Hamid and Homaira Rashidi
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:6
  12. Levothyroxine (LT4) pseudomalabsorption due to medication non-adherence results in significant costs for Health Service. High dose LT4 or LT4/paracetamol absorption test is used in such cases. Hence, establishmen...

    Authors: Krzysztof C. Lewandowski, Katarzyna Dąbrowska, Magdalena Basińska-Lewandowska, Marek Bolanowski, Marek Ruchała and Andrzej Lewiński
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:5
  13. Thyrotoxicosis is common disorder among endocrine dysfunctions. It is not rare that the free thyroid hormone level exceeds the measurement range of immunoassay. Such extreme high concentration of free thyroid ...

    Authors: Yuko Ito, Satoru Suzuki, Yoshiko Matsumoto, Chiyo Ohkouchi, Satoshi Suzuki, Manabu Iwadate, Sanae Midorikawa, Susumu Yokoya, Shinichi Suzuki and Hiroki Shimura
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:4
  14. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) decreases acutely after post-surgical radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation in females with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).

    Authors: Miranda Mittica, Andrea Dotto, Martina Comina, Marsida Teliti, Eleonora Monti and Massimo Giusti
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:1
  15. Treatment of moderate to severe Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is based mainly on intravenous pulses of methylprednisolone. High doses of methylprednisolone can exert several adverse effects, some of which might be ...

    Authors: Dorota Walasik-Szemplińska, Grzegorz Kamiński and Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2019 12:13
  16. Thyroid swellings enlarge caudally into the mediastinum behind the sternum. Pre-sternal swelling of thyroid origin is very rare. We present our case of pre-sternal thyroid swelling which was albeit a surprisin...

    Authors: Lovenish Bains, Sushant Bhatia, Rohit Kaushik, Sudhir Kumar Jain, Chandra Bhushan Singh, Shramana Mandal and Daljit Kaur
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2019 12:12
  17. Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma is defined as locally advanced in the presence of an extra thyroid extension, e.g., when the surrounding structures such as the trachea, larynx, esophagus and main blood v...

    Authors: Alessio Metere, Valerio Aceti and Laura Giacomelli
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2019 12:10
  18. A high body fat percentage has a specific effect on activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. On the other hand, a slight change in thyroid hormones can affect metabolism and body composition as w...

    Authors: Maryam Karkhaneh, Mostafa Qorbani, Asal Ataie-Jafari, Mohamad Reza Mohajeri-Tehrani, Hamid Asayesh and Saeed Hosseini
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2019 12:9
  19. Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) usually features a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (SITSH) without suppression of the typical high thyroid hormone levels. However, some p...

    Authors: Tomoko Nagamine, Jaeduk Yoshimura Noh, Naoya Emoto, Takahito Kogai, Akira Hishinuma, Fumitaka Okajima and Hitoshi Sugihara
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2019 12:8
  20. Resistance to thyroid hormones is a very rare condition, which is often misdiagnosed and mistreated. The cases where there is a concomitant autoimmune thyroid disorder are ultra-rare and particularly challengi...

    Authors: Todor Arsov, Chengmei Xie, Nan Shen, Dan Andrews, Carola G. Vinuesa and Olivija Vaskova
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2019 12:7
  21. Aberrant iodine intake and thyroid autoimmunity affect thyroid function. Deficiencies of iodine including thyroid disorders have serious impact on child physical and mental development. This study was conducte...

    Authors: Binaya Tamang, Saroj Khatiwada, Basanta Gelal, Shrijana Shrestha, Kishun Deo Mehta, Nirmal Baral, Gauri Shankar Shah and Madhab Lamsal
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2019 12:6
  22. To semi-quantitatively analyze liver uptake of I-131 in diagnostic and post-therapy scans by calculating hepatic to thigh ratios (HTR) and evaluate its clinical significance in management of differentiated thy...

    Authors: Prasanta K. Pradhan, Suruchi Jain, Madhusudhanan Ponnuswamy, Amitabh Arya and Manish Ora
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2019 12:4
  23. Thyrotoxicosis is a clinical state that results from inappropriately high thyroid hormone action in tissues. Although it is one of the common endocrine disorders, there is scarcity of data on the management of...

    Authors: Eyob Alemayehu Gebreyohannes, Emneteab Mesfin Ayele, Soliana Alemayehu Tesfaye and Mohammed Assen Seid
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2019 12:3
  24. Both overt hypothyroidism as well as minor elevations of serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels associated with thyroid hormones within their respective reference ranges (termed subclinical hypothyroidism) are relativ...

    Authors: Owain Leng and Salman Razvi
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2019 12:2
  25. Thyroid malignancy constitutes the sixth common cancer type in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). There are no epidemiological data outlining the prevalence of cancer in thyroid nodules, nor previous analysis of ...

    Authors: Eiman Alseddeeqi, Raqwana Baharoon, Rawia Mohamed, Jenan Ghaith, Abeer Al-Helali and Luai A. Ahmed
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:17
  26. Nodular lesions of the thyroid gland, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), may be difficult to diagnose by imaging, such as in ultrasonic echo testing, or by needle biopsy. Definitive diagnosis is made...

    Authors: Rumi Hino, Naoko Inoshita, Toyoki Yoshimoto, Makiko Ogawa, Daishu Miura, Ryoko Watanabe, Kenta Watanabe, Mako Kamiya and Yasteru Urano
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:16
  27. For the differential diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) on thyroid nodules, ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology is a useful and safe procedure, but its diagnostic accuracy is not high...

    Authors: Minoru Kihara, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Takumi Kudo, Toshitetsu Hayashi, Masatoshi Yamamoto, Hiroo Masuoka, Takuya Higashiyama, Mitsuhiro Fukushima, Yasuhiro Ito, Akihiro Miya and Akira Miyauchi
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:15
  28. On 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET), diffuse uptake in the thyroid gland is often observed in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. In this study, we evaluated the factors associat...

    Authors: Naoki Edo, Koji Morita, Miki Sakamoto, Tatsuro Kaminaga, Hiromi Edo, Erina Okamura, Masumi Ogawa, Kazuhisa Tsukamoto, Hiroko Okinaga and Toshio Ishikawa
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:14
  29. The activating mutation BRAFV600E is a frequent genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). Mutation BRAFV600E is associated with the loss of a sodium/iodine symporter (NIS), and subsequent radioiodide-r...

    Authors: Honglai Zhang and Dong Chen
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:13
  30. Malignant biphasic tumor also known as carcinosarcoma is an uncommon neoplasm that is composed of both malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components. Most reported cases of carcinosarcoma affect the female g...

    Authors: Jing Yang, Carmen Sarita-Reyes, David Kindelberger and Qing Zhao
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:11
  31. Malignant struma ovarii (MSO) is a very rare, germ cell tumor of the ovary, histologically identical to differentiated thyroid cancers. Struma ovarii (SO) is difficult to diagnose on clinical basis or imaging ...

    Authors: Mohamed S. Al Hassan, Tamer Saafan, Walid El Ansari, Afaf A. Al Ansari, Mahmoud A. Zirie, Hanan Farghaly and Abdelrahman Abdelaal
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:10
  32. Iodine is important for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency in pregnancy may impair fetal neurological development. As perchlorate and thiocyanate inhibit sodium-iodide symporter reducing the tran...

    Authors: Bridget A. Knight, Beverley M. Shields, Xuemei He, Elizabeth N. Pearce, Lewis E. Braverman, Rachel Sturley and Bijay Vaidya
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:9
  33. There is little information regarding the natural course of hypoechoic thyroid lesions that are probable or possible thyroid lymphoma based on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results.

    Authors: Tomoe Nakao, Mitsushige Nishikawa, Mako Hisakado, Toshihiko Kasahara, Takumi Kudo, Eijun Nishihara, Mitsuru Ito, Shuji Fukata, Hirotoshi Nakamura, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa and Akira Miyauchi
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:8
  34. Evidence on the treatment of euthyroid infertile women and thyroid autoimmunity with thyroid hormone is scare, and therefore the recent study by Wang et al. is a welcome addition to it. Based on their results,...

    Authors: Kris Poppe, Flora Veltri and Candice Autin
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:7
  35. Gastric ulcers are mucosal discontinuities that may extend into the mucosa, submucosa or even deeper. They result from an imbalance between mucosal aggressors and protective mechanisms that include the mucus b...

    Authors: Jackline Namulema, Miriam Nansunga, Charles Drago Kato, Muhammudu Kalange and Samuel Babafemi Olaleye
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:6
  36. The thyroid gland is resistant to microbial infection, because of its organ characteristics such as encapsulation, iodine content, and rich blood supply. Therefore, acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST), as a ba...

    Authors: Hazuki Otani, Masakazu Notsu, Sayo Koike, Miwa Morita, Masahiro Yamamoto, Mika Yamauchi, Takahumi Fuchiwaki, Ichiro Morikura, Noriaki Aoi, Hideyuki Kawauchi, Teruaki Iwabashi, Asuka Araki, Noriyoshi Ishikawa, Riruke Maruyama and Toshitsugu Sugimoto
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:4
  37. We aimed to study the validity of six published ultrasound criteria for risk stratification of thyroid nodules in the former severely iodine deficient population of Austria.

    Authors: Christina Tugendsam, Veronika Petz, Wolfgang Buchinger, Brigitta Schmoll-Hauer, Iris Pia Schenk, Karin Rudolph, Michael Krebs and Georg Zettinig
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:3
  38. Autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) broadly include Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis which are the most common causes of thyroid gland dysfunctions. These disorders develop due to complex interactio...

    Authors: Marta Rydzewska, Michał Jaromin, Izabela Elżbieta Pasierowska, Karlina Stożek and Artur Bossowski
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2018 11:2

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