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  1. The ratio of serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) to free thyroxine (FT4) has been shown to be constant in healthy adults. However, this ratio has been found to be decreased in athyreotic adult patients on levoth...

    Authors: Yuji Oto, Koji Muroya, Junko Hanakawa, Yumi Asakura and Masanori Adachi

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the primary cause of long-term adult disability in the United States. Increasing evidence suggests that low T3 levels immediately following acute ischemic stroke ...

    Authors: Lena M. O’Keefe, Sarah E. Conway, Alexandra Czap, Carl D. Malchoff, Sharon Benashski, Gilbert Fortunato, Ilene Staff and Louise D. McCullough

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:9

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  3. Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) includes suppression of TSH with levothyroxine therapy, which may negatively influence bone mineral density (BMD), but the effects are controversial. We aime...

    Authors: Thaís Gomes de Melo, Lígia Vera Montalli da Assumpção, Allan de Oliveira Santos and Denise Engelbrecht Zantut-Wittmann

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  4. The heart is a major target organ for thyroid hormone action. Severe overt hypothyroidism can result in diastolic hypertension, lowered cardiac output, impaired left ventricular contractility and diastolic rel...

    Authors: Apostolos Chatzitomaris, Michael Scheeler, Michael Gotzmann, Roland Köditz, Janice Schildroth, Kathy Miriam Knyhala, Volkmar Nicolas, Christoph Heyer, Andreas Mügge, Harald H. Klein and Johannes W. Dietrich

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:6

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  5. Rare diseases are usually defined as entities affecting less than 1 person per 2,000. About 7,000 different rare entities are distinguished and, among them, rare diseases of the thyroid gland. Although not fre...

    Authors: Katarzyna Lacka and Adam Maciejewski

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:5

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  6. Patients with metastases to the thyroid from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) that need surgical management are not many and unfamiliar to clinicians and thyroid endocrinologists. Therefore, little information is av...

    Authors: Kaoru Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Tomonori Yabuta, Mitsuhiro Fukushima, Hiroo Masuoka, Takuya Higashiyama, Minoru Kihara, Yasuhiro Ito, Akihiro Miya, Nobuyuki Amino and Akira Miyauchi

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  7. The thyroid undergoes a variety of physiological changes during pregnancy. The relatively low iodine levels seen in pregnancy have been implicated in thyroid growth during this time. Management of thyroid canc...

    Authors: Manish M George, Jay Goswamy and Susannah E Penney

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:3

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  8. Most of our knowledge on the mechanisms of thyroid hormone (TH) dependent brain development is based on clinical observations and animal studies of maternal/fetal hypothyroidism. THs play an essential role in ...

    Authors: R G Ahmed

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:2

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  9. In normal conditions FSHR are expressed in granulosa cells of the ovary and Sertoli cells of the testis. They can be expressed also in gonadal tumours. However, recently the expression of FSHR was found in tum...

    Authors: Marek Pawlikowski, Julita Fuss-Chmielewska, Maria Jaranowska, Hanna Pisarek, Robert Kubiak and Katarzyna Winczyk

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:1

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  10. Loss of bone mineral density due to osteoporosis is the main cause of fragility fractures and leads to dropped quality of life and increased mortality. Disturbance of balance between bone formation and bone re...

    Authors: Dominika Tuchendler and Marek Bolanowski

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:12

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  11. The cyclooxygenases are a group of enzymes catalyzing the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is a constitutive form, thought to be a “housekeeping gene”, with constant ...

    Authors: Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka, Katarzyna Wojciechowska-Durczynska, Anna Cyniak-Magierska, Arkadiusz Zygmunt and Andrzej Lewinski

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  12. The cell-mediated immune process by CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subsets of T-cells has a major role in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). However, the exact mechanisms of initiation and progression...

    Authors: Teslime Ayaz, Serap Baydur Sahin, Osman Zikrullah Sahin, Medine Cumhur Cure, Fatih Sumer and Kadir Ilkkilic

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. The pre-surgical selection of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology (Thy 3 according to British Thyroid Association) after fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is currently required in order to reduce un...

    Authors: Massimo Giusti, Claudia Campomenosi, Stefano Gay, Barbara Massa, Enzo Silvestri, Eleonora Monti and Giovanni Turtulici

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:9

    Content type: Research

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  14. Preoperative diagnostic investigations of nodular goiter are based on two main examinations: ultrasonography of the thyroid gland and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. So far, FNAB has been the ...

    Authors: Anhelli Syrenicz, Monika Koziołek, Andrzej Ciechanowicz, Anna Sieradzka, Agnieszka Bińczak-Kuleta and Miłosz Parczewski

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:6

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  15. Whereas oxidative reactions occur in all tissues and organs, the thyroid constitutes such an organ, in which oxidative processes are indispensable for physiological functions. In turn, numerous metabolic react...

    Authors: Agnieszka Kokoszko-Bilska, Jan Stepniak, Andrzej Lewinski and Malgorzata Karbownik-Lewinska

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. It is now recognized that TSH can act on targets other than the thyroid, including the liver. Elevated serum TSH levels in euthyroid subjects were recently reported to correlate with high values of serum propr...

    Authors: AnneMarie Gagnon, Moeber Mahzari, Heather A Lochnan and Alexander Sorisky

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:4

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  17. Thyroid metastases account for approximately 1.4-3% of all malignancies of the thyroid gland. Thyroid metastases are most common in: clarocellular carcinoma of the kidney, lung cancer, breast cancer, malignant...

    Authors: Monika Koziołek, Anna Sieradzka, Lilianna Osowicz-Korolonek, Ewa Wentland-Kotwicka, Katarzyna Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk and Anhelli Syrenicz

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:1

    Content type: Case report

    Published on:

  18. Studies based on laboratory data about thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) reference interval (RI) show conflicting results regarding the importance of using specific values by age group...

    Authors: Rosita Fontes, Claudia Regina Coeli, Fernanda Aguiar and Mario Vaisman

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2013 6:13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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