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  1. Content type: Research

    Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) includes suppression of TSH with levothyroxine therapy, which may negatively influence bone mineral density (BMD), but the effects are controversial. We aime...

    Authors: Thaís Gomes de Melo, Lígia Vera Montalli da Assumpção, Allan de Oliveira Santos and Denise Engelbrecht Zantut-Wittmann

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:7

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  2. Content type: Case report

    The heart is a major target organ for thyroid hormone action. Severe overt hypothyroidism can result in diastolic hypertension, lowered cardiac output, impaired left ventricular contractility and diastolic rel...

    Authors: Apostolos Chatzitomaris, Michael Scheeler, Michael Gotzmann, Roland Köditz, Janice Schildroth, Kathy Miriam Knyhala, Volkmar Nicolas, Christoph Heyer, Andreas Mügge, Harald H. Klein and Johannes W. Dietrich

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:6

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  3. Content type: Review

    Rare diseases are usually defined as entities affecting less than 1 person per 2,000. About 7,000 different rare entities are distinguished and, among them, rare diseases of the thyroid gland. Although not fre...

    Authors: Katarzyna Lacka and Adam Maciejewski

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:5

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  4. Content type: Research

    Patients with metastases to the thyroid from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) that need surgical management are not many and unfamiliar to clinicians and thyroid endocrinologists. Therefore, little information is av...

    Authors: Kaoru Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Tomonori Yabuta, Mitsuhiro Fukushima, Hiroo Masuoka, Takuya Higashiyama, Minoru Kihara, Yasuhiro Ito, Akihiro Miya, Nobuyuki Amino and Akira Miyauchi

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:4

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  5. Content type: Case report

    The thyroid undergoes a variety of physiological changes during pregnancy. The relatively low iodine levels seen in pregnancy have been implicated in thyroid growth during this time. Management of thyroid canc...

    Authors: Manish M George, Jay Goswamy and Susannah E Penney

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:3

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  6. Content type: Review

    Most of our knowledge on the mechanisms of thyroid hormone (TH) dependent brain development is based on clinical observations and animal studies of maternal/fetal hypothyroidism. THs play an essential role in ...

    Authors: R G Ahmed

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:2

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  7. Content type: Research

    In normal conditions FSHR are expressed in granulosa cells of the ovary and Sertoli cells of the testis. They can be expressed also in gonadal tumours. However, recently the expression of FSHR was found in tum...

    Authors: Marek Pawlikowski, Julita Fuss-Chmielewska, Maria Jaranowska, Hanna Pisarek, Robert Kubiak and Katarzyna Winczyk

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2015 8:1

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  8. Content type: Short report

    Loss of bone mineral density due to osteoporosis is the main cause of fragility fractures and leads to dropped quality of life and increased mortality. Disturbance of balance between bone formation and bone re...

    Authors: Dominika Tuchendler and Marek Bolanowski

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:12

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  9. Content type: Research

    The cyclooxygenases are a group of enzymes catalyzing the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic acid. Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is a constitutive form, thought to be a “housekeeping gene”, with constant ...

    Authors: Kinga Krawczyk-Rusiecka, Katarzyna Wojciechowska-Durczynska, Anna Cyniak-Magierska, Arkadiusz Zygmunt and Andrzej Lewinski

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:10

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  10. Content type: Research

    The pre-surgical selection of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology (Thy 3 according to British Thyroid Association) after fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is currently required in order to reduce un...

    Authors: Massimo Giusti, Claudia Campomenosi, Stefano Gay, Barbara Massa, Enzo Silvestri, Eleonora Monti and Giovanni Turtulici

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:9

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  11. Content type: Research

    The cell-mediated immune process by CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte subsets of T-cells has a major role in the pathogenesis of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). However, the exact mechanisms of initiation and progression...

    Authors: Teslime Ayaz, Serap Baydur Sahin, Osman Zikrullah Sahin, Medine Cumhur Cure, Fatih Sumer and Kadir Ilkkilic

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:11

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  12. Content type: Review

    Preoperative diagnostic investigations of nodular goiter are based on two main examinations: ultrasonography of the thyroid gland and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. So far, FNAB has been the ...

    Authors: Anhelli Syrenicz, Monika Koziołek, Andrzej Ciechanowicz, Anna Sieradzka, Agnieszka Bińczak-Kuleta and Miłosz Parczewski

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:6

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  13. Content type: Research

    Whereas oxidative reactions occur in all tissues and organs, the thyroid constitutes such an organ, in which oxidative processes are indispensable for physiological functions. In turn, numerous metabolic react...

    Authors: Agnieszka Kokoszko-Bilska, Jan Stepniak, Andrzej Lewinski and Malgorzata Karbownik-Lewinska

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:5

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  14. Content type: Short report

    It is now recognized that TSH can act on targets other than the thyroid, including the liver. Elevated serum TSH levels in euthyroid subjects were recently reported to correlate with high values of serum propr...

    Authors: AnneMarie Gagnon, Moeber Mahzari, Heather A Lochnan and Alexander Sorisky

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:4

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  15. Content type: Case report

    Thyroid metastases account for approximately 1.4-3% of all malignancies of the thyroid gland. Thyroid metastases are most common in: clarocellular carcinoma of the kidney, lung cancer, breast cancer, malignant...

    Authors: Monika Koziołek, Anna Sieradzka, Lilianna Osowicz-Korolonek, Ewa Wentland-Kotwicka, Katarzyna Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk and Anhelli Syrenicz

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2014 7:1

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  16. Content type: Research

    Studies based on laboratory data about thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) reference interval (RI) show conflicting results regarding the importance of using specific values by age group...

    Authors: Rosita Fontes, Claudia Regina Coeli, Fernanda Aguiar and Mario Vaisman

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2013 6:13

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  17. Content type: Case report

    Serum concentration of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) has been established as a reliable marker of T-lymphocyte activation. However, there have been no reports describing the relationship between seru...

    Authors: Kae Hamamoto, Masaaki Inaba, Shinsuke Yamada, Maki Yoda, Koichiro Yoda, Hitoshi Goto, Masafumi Kurajoh and Hidenori Koyama

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2013 6:12

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  18. Content type: Research

    Thyrotoxicosis is a cause of secondary osteoporosis. High concentrations of triiodotironine (T3) in Graves’ disease stimulate bone turnover, but it is unclear if euthyroidism will always normalize bone metabol...

    Authors: Monica A Ercolano, Monica L Drnovsek, Maria C Silva Croome, Monica Moos, Ana M Fuentes, Fanny Viale, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen and Alicia T Gauna

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2013 6:11

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  19. Content type: Research

    Fenton reaction (Fe2++H2O2→Fe3++OH+OH) is of special significance in the thyroid gland, as both its substrates, i.e. H2O2 and Fe2+, are required for thyroid hormone synthesis. Also iodine, an essential element ...

    Authors: Magdalena Milczarek, Jan Stępniak, Andrzej Lewiński and Małgorzata Karbownik-Lewińska

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2013 6:10

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  20. Content type: Research

    In order to assess safety of radioactive iodine administration in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis, we measured concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), its main inhibitor – TIMP-2 (tissue inhibito...

    Authors: Andrzej Lewinski, Anna Brona, Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Diana Jedrzejuk, Anna Bohdanowicz-Pawlak, Elżbieta Skowronska-Jozwiak, Małgorzata Bienkiewicz and Andrzej Milewicz

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2013 6:9

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  21. Content type: Research

    Associations between breast cancer and thyroid disorders are reported in numerous studies. Relationships between thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) and breast cancer have been ...

    Authors: Paweł Szychta, Wojciech Szychta, Adam Gesing, Andrzej Lewiński and Małgorzata Karbownik-Lewińska

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2013 6:8

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  22. Content type: Review

    Hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid are thought to only rarely harbor thyroid cancer, and thus are infrequently biopsied. Here, we present the case of a patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harbo...

    Authors: Sasan Mirfakhraee, Dana Mathews, Lan Peng, Stacey Woodruff and Jeffrey M Zigman

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2013 6:7

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  23. Content type: Research

    The standard management in patients with thyroid nodules is to assess the risk of malignancy, based on cytological examination. On the other hand, there are thyroid patterns of ultrasound (US) image, associate...

    Authors: Zbigniew Adamczewski and Andrzej Lewiński

    Citation: Thyroid Research 2013 6:6

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