Sipos J, Mazzaferri E. Thyroid cancer epidemiology and prognostic variables. Clin Oncol. 2010;22(6):395–404.
Davies L, Welch HG. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States, 1973-2002. Jama. 2006;295(18):2164–7.
Jung CK, Little MP, Lubin JH, Brenner AV, Wells SA, Sigurdson AJ, et al. The increase in thyroid cancer incidence during the last four decades is accompanied by a high frequency of BRAF mutations and a sharp increase in RAS mutations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99(2):E276–E85.
Wagle N, Grabiner BC, Van Allen EM, Amin-Mansour A, Taylor-Weiner A, Rosenberg M, et al. Response and acquired resistance to everolimus in anaplastic thyroid cancer. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(15):1426–33.
Pierie J-PE, Muzikansky A, Gaz RD, Faquin WC, Ott MJ. The effect of surgery and radiotherapy on outcome of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2002;9(1):57–64.
Lee J, Cuddihy MJ, Kotov NA. Three-dimensional cell culture matrices: state of the art. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2008;14(1):61–86.
Gevaert M. Engineering 3D tissue systems to better mimic human biology. Bridge. 2012;42(4):48–55.
Szot CS, Buchanan CF, Freeman JW, Rylander MN. 3D in vitro bioengineered tumors based on collagen I hydrogels. Biomaterials. 2011;32(31):7905–12.
Godugu C, Patel AR, Desai U, Andey T, Sams A, Singh M. AlgiMatrix™ based 3D cell culture system as an in-vitro tumor model for anticancer studies. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e53708.
Weigelt B, Lo AT, Park CC, Gray JW, Bissell MJ. HER2 signaling pathway activation and response of breast cancer cells to HER2-targeting agents is dependent strongly on the 3D microenvironment. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;122(1):35–43.
Kenny PA, Lee GY, Myers CA, Neve RM, Semeiks JR, Spellman PT, et al. The morphologies of breast cancer cell lines in three-dimensional assays correlate with their profiles of gene expression. Mol Oncol. 2007;1(1):84–96.
Langhans SA. Three-dimensional in vitro cell culture models in drug discovery and drug repositioning. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:6.
Horning JL, Sahoo SK, Vijayaraghavalu S, Dimitrijevic S, Vasir JK, Jain TK, et al. 3-D tumor model for in vitro evaluation of anticancer drugs. Mol Pharm. 2008;5(5):849–62.
Fischbach C, Kong HJ, Hsiong SX, Evangelista MB, Yuen W, Mooney DJ. Cancer cell angiogenic capability is regulated by 3D culture and integrin engagement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106(2):399–404.
Paul SM, Mytelka DS, Dunwiddie CT, Persinger CC, Munos BH, Lindborg SR, et al. How to improve R&D productivity: the pharmaceutical industry's grand challenge. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2010;9(3):203–14.
LaBarbera DV, Reid BG, Yoo BH. The multicellular tumor spheroid model for high-throughput cancer drug discovery. Expert Opin Drug Discov. 2012;7(9):819–30.
Griffith LG, Swartz MA. Capturing complex 3D tissue physiology in vitro. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2006;7(3):211–24.
Pampaloni F, Reynaud EG, Stelzer EH. The third dimension bridges the gap between cell culture and live tissue. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2007;8(10):839–45.
Oshikata A, Matsushita T, Ueoka R. Enhancement of drug efflux activity via MDR1 protein by spheroid culture of human hepatic cancer cells. J Biosci Bioeng. 2011;111(5):590–3.
Seifirad S, Haghpanah V. Inappropriate modeling of chronic and complex disorders: how to reconsider the approach in the context of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine, and translational medicine. EPMA J. 2019;1-15.
Prestwich GD. Evaluating drug efficacy and toxicology in three dimensions: using synthetic extracellular matrices in drug discovery. Acc Chem Res. 2007;41(1):139–48.
Li Z, Zheng W, Wang H, Cheng Y, Fang Y, Wu F, et al. Application of animal models in Cancer research: recent Progress and future prospects. Cancer Manag Res. 2021;13:2455.
Chen L, Xiao Z, Meng Y, Zhao Y, Han J, Su G, et al. The enhancement of cancer stem cell properties of MCF-7 cells in 3D collagen scaffolds for modeling of cancer and anti-cancer drugs. Biomaterials. 2012;33(5):1437–44.
Smith BH, Gazda LS, Conn BL, Jain K, Asina S, Levine DM, et al. Three-dimensional culture of mouse renal carcinoma cells in agarose macrobeads selects for a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell or cancer progenitor properties. Cancer Res. 2011;71(3):716–24.
Lin R-Y. Thyroid cancer stem cells. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011;7(10):609–16.
Marotta V, Sciammarella C, Vitale M, Colao A, Faggiano A. The evolving field of kinase inhibitors in thyroid cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2015;93(1):60–73.
Saini S, Tulla K, Maker AV, Burman KD, Prabhakar BS. Therapeutic advances in anaplastic thyroid cancer: a current perspective. Mol Cancer. 2018;17(1):154.
Sini P, Gürtler U, Zahn SK, Baumann C, Rudolph D, Baumgartinger R, et al. Pharmacological profile of BI 847325, an orally bioavailable, ATP-competitive inhibitor of MEK and Aurora kinases. Mol Cancer Ther. 2016;15(10):2388–98.
Samimi H, Haghpanah V, Irani S, Fallah P, Arefian E, Soleimani M. Determination of ATP-competitive inhibitor drug toxicity in anaplastic thyroid Cancer based on cell characteristics and three-dimensional cell culture. Modares Journal of Biotechnology. 2019;10(3):503–9.
Khattak SF, Spatara M, Roberts L, Roberts SC. Application of colorimetric assays to assess viability, growth and metabolism of hydrogel-encapsulated cells. Biotechnol Lett. 2006;28(17):1361–70.
Welkos S, O'Brien A. Determination of median lethal and infectious doses in animal model systems. Methods Enzymol. 1994;235:29–39.
Reed LJ, Muench H. A simple method of estimating fifty per cent endpoints. Am J Epidemiol. 1938;27(3):493–7.
Pilli T, Prasad KV, Jayarama S, Pacini F, Prabhakar BS. Potential utility and limitations of thyroid cancer cell lines as models for studying thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2009;19(12):1333–42.
Samimi H, Fallah P, Sohi AN, Tavakoli R, Naderi M, Soleimani M, et al. Precision medicine approach to anaplastic thyroid cancer: advances in targeted drug therapy based on specific signaling pathways. Acta Med Iran. 2017;55(3):200–8.
Meireles AM, Preto A, Rocha AS, Rebocho AP, Máximo V, Pereira-Castro I, et al. Molecular and genotypic characterization of human thyroid follicular cell carcinoma–derived cell lines. Thyroid. 2007;17(8):707–15.
Landa I, Pozdeyev N, Korch C, Marlow LA, Smallridge RC, Copland JA, et al. Comprehensive genetic characterization of human thyroid cancer cell lines: a validated panel for preclinical studies. Clin Cancer Res. 2019;25(10):3141–51.
Kyle AH, Huxham LA, Chiam AS, Sim DH, Minchinton AI. Direct assessment of drug penetration into tissue using a novel application of three-dimensional cell culture. Cancer Res. 2004;64(17):6304–9.
Guerra A, Di Crescenzo V, Garzi A, Cinelli M, Carlomagno C, Tonacchera M, et al. Genetic mutations in the treatment of anaplastic thyroid cancer: a systematic review. BMC Surg. 2013;13(Suppl 2):S44.
Reddi H, Kumar A, Kulstad R. Anaplastic thyroid cancer an overview of genetic variations and treatment modalities. Adv Genomics Genet. 2015;5:43–52.
Are C, Shaha AR. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma: biology, pathogenesis, prognostic factors, and treatment approaches. Ann Surg Oncol. 2006;13(4):453–64.
Kimlin LC, Casagrande G, Virador VM. In vitro three-dimensional (3D) models in cancer research: an update. Mol Carcinog. 2013;52(3):167–82.
Thoma CR, Zimmermann M, Agarkova I, Kelm JM, Krek W. 3D cell culture systems modeling tumor growth determinants in cancer target discovery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2014;69:29–41.
Kyle AH, Huxham LA, Yeoman DM, Minchinton AI. Limited tissue penetration of taxanes: a mechanism for resistance in solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13(9):2804–10.
Loessner D, Stok KS, Lutolf MP, Hutmacher DW, Clements JA, Rizzi SC. Bioengineered 3D platform to explore cell–ECM interactions and drug resistance of epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Biomaterials. 2010;31(32):8494–506.
Pickl M, Ries C. Comparison of 3D and 2D tumor models reveals enhanced HER2 activation in 3D associated with an increased response to trastuzumab. Oncogene. 2009;28(3):461–8.
Sarkar B, Dosch J, Simeone DM. Cancer stem cells: a new theory regarding a timeless disease. Chem Rev. 2009;109(7):3200–8.
Dubrovska A, Elliott J, Salamone RJ, Kim S, Aimone LJ, Walker JR, et al. Combination therapy targeting both tumor-initiating and differentiated cell populations in prostate carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2010;16(23):5692–702.
Donnenberg VS, Donnenberg AD. Multiple drug resistance in cancer revisited: the cancer stem cell hypothesis. J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;45(8):872–7.
Haghpanah V, Fallah P, Naderi M, Tavakoli R, Soleimani M, Larijani B. Cancer stem-like cell behavior in anaplastic thyroid cancer: a challenging dilemma. Life Sci. 2016;146:34–9.
Yang X, Sarvestani SK, Moeinzadeh S, He X, Jabbari E. Three-dimensional-engineered matrix to study cancer stem cells and tumorsphere formation: effect of matrix modulus. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;19(5–6):669–84.
Dhiman HK, Ray AR, Panda AK. Three-dimensional chitosan scaffold-based MCF-7 cell culture for the determination of the cytotoxicity of tamoxifen. Biomaterials. 2005;26(9):979–86.
Tannock IF, Lee CM, Tunggal JK, Cowan DS, Egorin MJ. Limited penetration of anticancer drugs through tumor tissue: a potential cause of resistance of solid tumors to chemotherapy. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8(3):878–84.
Ong S-M, Zhao Z, Arooz T, Zhao D, Zhang S, Du T, et al. Engineering a scaffold-free 3D tumor model for in vitro drug penetration studies. Biomaterials. 2010;31(6):1180–90.