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  1. The cause of adult adenomegalies may be defiant. On the other hand, ectopic thyroid is a rare condition that happens in every 1:100000 to 300,000 of healthy individuals. Here, we present a case report that joi...

    Authors: Marta Borges-Canha, João Sérgio-Neves, Inês Albuquerque, João Pacheco, Maria Manuel Silva, Ana Isabel Oliveira and Davide Carvalho
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2022 15:10
  2. In patients receiving thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppressive therapy with levothyroxine (LT4) after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer, thyroid function tests should be performed to adjust the LT4 dose...

    Authors: Mitsuru Ito, Sawako Takahashi, Mikiko Okazaki-Hada, Mizuho Minakata, Kazuyoshi Kohsaka, Tomohiko Nakamura, Toshihiko Kasahara, Takumi Kudo, Eijun Nishihara, Shuji Fukata, Mitsushige Nishikawa, Takashi Akamiuzu and Akira Miyauchi
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2022 15:9
  3. Hyperthyroidism has been treated with radioiodine therapy for eight decades, with known benefits and side-effects. No consensus exists on which activity dosage and pre-therapeutic measurements are required for...

    Authors: Joachim N. Nilsson, Rebecca Elovsson, Daniel Thor, Jan Calissendorff and Oscar Ardenfors
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2022 15:8
  4. Amyloid goiter, defined as excess amyloid within the thyroid gland in such quantities that it produces a clinically apparent goiter, is a very rare manifestation of systemic amyloidosis with cases commonly see...

    Authors: Chandani Patel Chavez, Maria del Mar Morales Hernandez, Jesse Kresak and Whitney W. Woodmansee
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2022 15:7
  5. Evidence in the literature has suggested that there may be an association between thyroid antibodies and depression during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. Thus, this study aims to conduct a systematic ...

    Authors: Paula Michele da Silva Schmidt, Aline Longoni, Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro and Adriano Martimbianco de Assis
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2022 15:6
  6. Hypocalcemia is one of the most common complications of thyroidectomy, and vitamin D deficiency has been found to be an independent risk factor. Sweden is located north of the 55th latitude, resulting in a sig...

    Authors: Carl Kördel, Anna Koman, Robert Bränström and Adam Stenman
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2022 15:5
  7. The residents of both the agricultural and pastoral areas of Tibet share the same iodine deficiency and iodine nutrition, but the rate of thyroid goiter was significantly higher in the agricultural areas than ...

    Authors: Jing Xu, Shichuan Liu, Wei Ma, Xiuwei Li, Min Guo, Xiaoxiao Cao, Yunyou Gu, Haiyan Wang, Jianqiang Wang, Ying Zhang, Guangxiu Zhuang and Liejun Liu
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2022 15:4
  8. Hypothyroidism is a topic that continues to provoke debate and controversy with regards to specific indications, type of thyroid hormone substitution and efficacy. We investigated the use of thyroid hormones i...

    Authors: Maria-Cristina Burlacu, Roberto Attanasio, Laszlo Hegedüs, Endre V. Nagy, Enrico Papini, Petros Perros, Kiswendsida Sawadogo, Marie Bex, Bernard Corvilain, Chantal Daumerie, Brigitte Decallonne, Damien Gruson, Bruno Lapauw, Rodrigo Moreno Reyes, Patrick Petrossians, Kris Poppe…
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2022 15:3
  9. Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts for approximately 1.6% of new cases of thyroid cancer. The objective of this study was to describe patient characteristics, biomarker testing, treatment patterns, and cl...

    Authors: Rohan Parikh, Lisa M. Hess, Elizabeth Esterberg, Naleen Raj Bhandari and James A. Kaye
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2022 15:2
  10. Follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) rarely metastasize to regional lymph nodes, and descriptions of synchronous lateral lymph node metastases of FTC and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are lacking.

    Authors: Adam Stenman, Magnus Kjellman, Jan Zedenius and C. Christofer Juhlin
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2022 15:1
  11. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture methods are identified for simulating the biological microenvironment and demonstrating more similarity to in vivo circumstances. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a let...

    Authors: Hilda Samimi, Alireza Naderi Sohi, Shiva Irani, Ehsan Arefian, Mojdeh Mahdiannasser, Parviz Fallah and Vahid Haghpanah
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:27
  12. Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is the most common inflammatory autoimmune thyroid disease and also the most common cause of hypothyroidism in developed countries. There is evidence of the role of HT in developing ...

    Authors: Pouya Abbasgholizadeh, Amirreza Naseri, Ehsan Nasiri and Vahideh Sadra
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:26
  13. Iodine is an essential component of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Its availability strictly depends on iodine content of foods, which may vary from very low to very high. Inadequate iod...

    Authors: Mariacarla Moleti, Maria Di Mauro, Giuseppe Paola, Antonella Olivieri and Francesco Vermiglio
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:25
  14. Lithium use causes goiter by increasing serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels through the inhibition of thyroid hormone release. However, there are no reports of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma resu...

    Authors: Jung Ho Choi, Young Ok Hong, Hyo-Jeong Kim and Ah Ra Jung
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:24
  15. Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a common malignancy with increasing incidence. Follow-up care for DTC includes thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement and ultrasound (US) of the neck, combined with 131I remnant abl...

    Authors: Bastiaan Sol, Bert Bravenboer, Brigitte Velkeniers, Steven Raeymaeckers, Marleen Keyaerts and Corina Emilia Andreescu
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:23
  16. Thyroid dysfunction can affect fertility and miscarriage risk by affecting the process of follicular growth, embryo development, implantation, and placental formation. It has been suggested that thyroid disord...

    Authors: Roya Kabodmehri, Seyedeh Hajar Sharami, Ziba Zahiri Sorouri, Nasrin Ghanami Gashti, Forozan Milani, Zeinab Chaypaz and Maryam Ghalandari
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:22
  17. The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic initially appeared in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, on 31 December 2019 and was spread rapidly worldwide. Most underlying diseases reported with COVID-19 patients are ...

    Authors: Soraya Doustmohammadian, Azam Doustmohammadian and Marjan Momeni
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:21
  18. Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE) in the thyroid gland is a rare disease with generally a favorable prognosis. Treatment with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy has been shown to improve lo...

    Authors: N. V. Dang, L. X. Son, N. T. T. Hong, N. T. T. Nhung, N. T. Tung and L. V. Quang
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:20
  19. Thyroid cancer dedifferentiation is an unusual observation among young patients and is poorly understood, although a recent correlation to DICER1 gene mutations has been proposed.

    Authors: Klara Johansson, Adam Stenman, Johan O. Paulsson, Na Wang, Catharina Ihre-Lundgren, Jan Zedenius and C. Christofer Juhlin
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:19
  20. Anti-streptavidin antibodies are causal determinants of analytical interference during Thyroid function tests, and numerous reports have detailed such interference, with anti-streptavidin antibodies attracting...

    Authors: Takuya Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Sakai, Tokutaro Itaya, Suwanai Hirotsugu, Jumpei Shikuma, Takashi Miwa, Ryo Suzuki and Masato Odawara
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:17
  21. Ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality for detection and classification of thyroid nodules. Certain characteristics observable by ultrasound have recently been identified that may indicate malignancy. T...

    Authors: Michael Cordes, Theresa Ida Götz, Elmar Wolfgang Lang, Stephan Coerper, Torsten Kuwert and Christian Schmidkonz
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:16
  22. Distant metastasis from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) is rare. Here we report a case of PTMC with multiple lung metastases.

    Authors: Tadafumi Shimizu, Takaaki Oba, Tatsunori Chino, Ai Soma, Mayu Ono, Tokiko Ito, Toshiharu Kanai, Kazuma Maeno, Yoshinori Sato, Takeshi Uehara and Ken-ichi Ito
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:15
  23. Mild to moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring. Few research studies to date combine assessment of urinary iodine (UIC and/or ICr)...

    Authors: Anna M. Monaghan, Maria S. Mulhern, Emeir M. McSorley, J. J. Strain, Matthew Dyer, Edwin van Wijngaarden and Alison J. Yeates
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:14
  24. Hypocalcemia is one of the main complications of thyroid surgery. We hypothesized that hemithyroidectomy may have an impact on serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium levels despite only one thyroid lobe i...

    Authors: Isabel Fernández Palop, Cristina Fernández Martínez, María Jesús Segura Giménez, M. Carmen Azorin Samper and Rafael García Fuster
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:13
  25. Pregnancy induces physiological changes that affect the risk of thrombosis and thyroid disease. In this hypothesis-generating review, the physiological changes in the coagulation system and in thyroid function...

    Authors: Stine Linding Andersen, Kasper Krogh Nielsen and Søren Risom Kristensen
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:12
  26. Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most important cause of mental and physical retardation in newborns. The prevalence of CH has been reported high in East Azerbaijan province of Iran. However, the risk fac...

    Authors: Fariba Abbasi, Leila Janani, Malihe Talebi, Hosein Azizi, Lotfali Hagiri and Shahnaz Rimaz
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:11
  27. Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a specific tumor marker for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, in the presence of an antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), it becomes unreliable. The purpose of the study was to a...

    Authors: Manish Ora, Aftab Hasan Nazar, Prabhakar Mishra, Sukanta Barai, Amitabh Arya, Prasanta Kumar Pradhan and Sanjay Gambhir
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:8
  28. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology, the gold standard in assessing thyroid nodules, is limited by its inability to determine the true risk of malignancy in Thy 3 nodules. Most patients with Thy3 cytology un...

    Authors: Giorgos Pikis, Eleni Kandaraki, Demetris Lamnisos, Sereen Abbara, Katerina Kyriakou, Aliki Economides and Panayiotis A. Economides
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:7
  29. The ovarian function and therefore the ovarian reserve may be compromised by the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases of which, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is the most common in women of reproductive age. Furt...

    Authors: Felipe A. Morales-Martínez, Luis H. Sordia-Hernández, Martha Merino Ruiz, Selene Garcia-Luna, Otto H. Valdés-Martínez and Oscar Vidal-Gutierez
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:6
  30. The treatment of hyperthyroid Graves’ disease (GD) varies considerably among geographic areas. In this study, we aimed to evaluate practice patterns and treatment outcomes in Thai patients with hyperthyroid GD.

    Authors: Yotsapon Thewjitcharoen, Krittadhee Karndumri, Waralee Chatchomchuan, Sriurai Porramatikul, Sirinate Krittiyawong, Ekgaluck Wanathayanoroj, Nampetch Lekpittaya, Worawit Kittipoom, Tawee Anuntakulnatee, Somboon Vongterapak, Siriwan Butadej, Soontaree Nakasatien, Rajata Rajatanavin and Thep Himathongkam
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:5
  31. Pretibial myxedema also known as localized myxedema, thyroid dermopathy, or infiltrative dermopathy and rarely as localized mucinosis is an infrequent manifestation of Graves’ disease. It can appear before, du...

    Authors: Rediet Ambachew, Tizita Yosef, Aklilu M. Gebremariam, Lishan Demere, Theodros Aberra, Getahun Tarekegn and Ahmed Reja
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:4
  32. Hyperfunctioning or hot nodules are thought to be rarely malignant. As such, current guidelines recommend that hot nodules be excluded from further malignancy risk stratification. The objective of this systema...

    Authors: Lorraine W. Lau, Sana Ghaznavi, Alexandra D. Frolkis, Alexandra Stephenson, Helen Lee Robertson, Doreen M. Rabi and Ralf Paschke
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:3
  33. Thyroid nodules are common in clinical practice, and it is important to distinguish benign nodules, the vast majority, from malignant ones. Non-diagnostic (ND) samples have the potential to delay or mis-diagno...

    Authors: Devon Houdek, Sandra Cooke-Hubley, Lakshmi Puttagunta and Donald Morrish
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2021 14:2
  34. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is undoubtedly the thyroid cancer histotype with the poorest prognosis. The conventional treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy, and conventional chemotherapy. Surgery should ...

    Authors: Simone De Leo, Matteo Trevisan and Laura Fugazzola
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:17
  35. 131-iodine (131I) administration after surgery remains a standard practice in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). In 2014, the American Thyroid Association presented new guidelines for the staging and management...

    Authors: Laura Iconaru, Felicia Baleanu, Georgiana Taujan, Ruth Duttmann, Linda Spinato, Rafik Karmali, Pierre Bergmann and Anne-Sophie Hambye
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:15
  36. Total T4 (TT4) measurement is preferred to free T4 (FT4) especially in last part of pregnancy. Guidelines by American Thyroid Association, European Thyroid Association and Endocrine Society state that TT4 incr...

    Authors: Subhodip Pramanik, Pradip Mukhopadhyay and Sujoy Ghosh
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:14
  37. Our previous kinetic analyses of changes in the tumor volume (TV) of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas during active surveillance revealed that the tumors’ growth varied over time from rather rapid growth to s...

    Authors: Minoru Kihara, Akira Miyauchi, Hiroo Masuoka, Takuya Higashiyama, Yasuhiro Ito and Akihiro Miya
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:13
  38. Antithyroid drugs (ATDs) are preferred for the treatment of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves’ disease in pregnant women. The drugs have been a recognized treatment for decades, and a general risk of side effec...

    Authors: Stine Linding Andersen and Stig Andersen
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:11
  39. Subclinical hypothyroidism is defined as elevated TSH levels while T4 or FT4 levels are normal. Elevated TSH levels are linked with obesity in adults. In a recent meta-analysis in Iran, 6.1% of children below ...

    Authors: Ashkan Habib, Mohadeseh Molayemat and Asadollah Habib
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:9
  40. The prevalence of thyroid cancer is increasing worldwide. No previous data are available on the prevalence of thyroid cancer in Yemen. We performed this study to determine the prevalence of thyroid cancer amon...

    Authors: Butheinah A. Al-Sharafi, Jamila A. AlSanabani, Ibraheem M. Alboany and Amani M. Shamsher
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:8
  41. Worldwide, hypothyroidism affects 3.7% of the population, and is associated with impaired quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) on the quality of life ...

    Authors: Sohaila Rezaei, Parvin Abedi, Elham Maraghi, Najmeh Hamid and Homaira Rashidi
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:6
  42. Levothyroxine (LT4) pseudomalabsorption due to medication non-adherence results in significant costs for Health Service. High dose LT4 or LT4/paracetamol absorption test is used in such cases. Hence, establishmen...

    Authors: Krzysztof C. Lewandowski, Katarzyna Dąbrowska, Magdalena Basińska-Lewandowska, Marek Bolanowski, Marek Ruchała and Andrzej Lewiński
    Citation: Thyroid Research 2020 13:5

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